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全新版大学英语综合教程3课文原文及翻译

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unit 1 Mr. Doherty Builds His Dream Life
In America many people have a romantic idea of life in the countryside. Many living in towns dream of starting up their own farm, of living off the land. Few get round to putting their dreams into practice. This is perhaps just as well, as the life of a farmer is far from easy, as Jim Doherty discovered when he set out to combine being a writer with running a farm. Nevertheless, as he explains, he has no regrets and remains enthusiastic about his decision to change his way of life. 在美国, 不少人对乡村生活怀有浪漫的情感。 许多居住在城镇的人梦想着自己办个农 场,梦想着靠土地为生。很少有人真去把梦想变为现实。或许这也没有什么不好,因为,正 如吉姆· 多尔蒂当初开始其写作和农场经营双重生涯时所体验到的那样, 农耕生活远非轻松 自在。但他写道,自己并不后悔,对自己作出的改变生活方式的决定仍热情不减。

Mr. Doherty Builds His Dream Life
Jim Doherty

1 There are two things I have always wanted to do -- write and live on a farm. Today I'm doing both. I am not in E. B. White's class as a writer or in my neighbors' league as a farmer, but I'm getting by. And after years of frustration with city and suburban living, my wife Sandy and I have finally found contentment here in the country. 多尔蒂先生创建自己的理想生活 吉姆·多尔蒂 有两件事是我一直想做的――写作与务农。如今我同时做着这两件事。作为作家,我 和 E·B·怀特不属同一等级,作为农场主,我和乡邻也不是同一类人,不过我应付得还行。 在城市以及郊区历经多年的怅惘失望之后, 我和妻子桑迪终于在这里的乡村寻觅到心灵的满 足。 2 It's a self-reliant sort of life. We grow nearly all of our fruits and vegetables. Our hens keep us in eggs, with several dozen left over to sell each week. Our bees provide us with honey, and we cut enough wood to just about make it through the heating season. 这是一种自力更生的生活。 我们食用的果蔬几乎都是自己种的。 自家饲养的鸡提供鸡 蛋,每星期还能剩余几十个出售。自家养殖的蜜蜂提供蜂蜜,我们还自己动手砍柴,足可供 过冬取暖之用。 3 It's a satisfying life too. In the summer we canoe on the river, go picnicking in the woods and take long bicycle rides. In the winter we ski and skate. We get excited about sunsets. We love the smell of the earth warming and the sound of cattle lowing. We watch for hawks in the sky and deer in the cornfields. 这也是一种令人满足的生活。夏日里我们在河上荡舟,在林子里野餐,骑着自行车长 时间漫游。冬日里我们滑雪溜冰。我们为落日的余辉而激动。我们爱闻大地回暖的气息,爱 听牛群哞叫。我们守着看鹰儿飞过上空,看玉米田间鹿群嬉跃。

4 But the good life can get pretty tough. Three months ago when it was 30 below, we spent two miserable days hauling firewood up the river on a sled. Three months from now, it will be 95 above and we will be cultivating corn, weeding strawberries and killing chickens. Recently, Sandy and I had to retile the back roof. Soon Jim, 16 and Emily, 13, the youngest of our four children, will help me make some long-overdue improvements on the outdoor toilet that supplements our indoor plumbing when we are working outside. Later this month, we'll spray the orchard, paint the barn, plant the garden and clean the hen house before the new chicks arrive. 但如此美妙的生活有时会变得相当艰苦。就在三个月前,气温降到华氏零下 30 度, 我们辛苦劳作了整整两天,用一个雪橇沿着河边拖运木柴。再过三个月,气温会升到 95 度, 我们就要给玉米松土, 在草莓地除草, 还要宰杀家禽。 前一阵子我和桑迪不得不翻修后屋顶。 过些时候,四个孩子中的两个小的,16 岁的吉米和 13 岁的埃米莉,会帮着我一起把拖了很 久没修的室外厕所修葺一下,那是专为室外干活修建的。这个月晚些时候,我们要给果树喷 洒药水,要油漆谷仓,要给菜园播种,要赶在新的小鸡运到之前清扫鸡舍。 5 In between such chores, I manage to spend 50 to 60 hours a week at the typewriter or doing reporting for the freelance articles I sell to magazines and newspapers. Sandy, meanwhile, pursues her own demanding schedule. Besides the usual household routine, she oversees the garden and beehives, bakes bread, cans and freezes, drives the kids to their music lessons, practices with them, takes organ lessons on her own, does research and typing for me, writes an article herself now and then, tends the flower beds, stacks a little wood and delivers the eggs. There is, as the old saying goes, no rest for the wicked on a place like this -- and not much for the virtuous either. 在 这些活计之间,我每周要抽空花五、六十个小时,不是打字撰文,就是为作为自由撰稿人投 给报刊的文章进行采访。桑迪则有她自己繁忙的工作日程。除了日常的家务,她还照管菜园 和蜂房,烘烤面包,将食品装罐、冷藏,开车送孩子学音乐,和他们一起练习,自己还要上 风琴课,为我做些研究工作并打字,自己有时也写写文章,还要侍弄花圃,堆摞木柴、运送 鸡蛋。正如老话说的那样,在这种情形之下,坏人不得闲――贤德之人也歇不了。 6 None of us will ever forget our first winter. We were buried under five feet of snow from December through March. While one storm after another blasted huge drifts up against the house and barn, we kept warm inside burning our own wood, eating our own apples and loving every minute of it. 我们谁也不会忘记第一年的冬天。从 12 月一直到 3 月底,我们都被深达 5 英尺的积 雪困着。暴风雪肆虐,一场接着一场,积雪厚厚地覆盖着屋子和谷仓,而室内,我们用自己 砍伐的木柴烧火取暖,吃着自家种植的苹果,温馨快乐每一分钟。 7 When spring came, it brought two floods. First the river overflowed, covering much of our land for weeks. Then the growing season began, swamping us under wave after wave of produce. Our freezer filled up with cherries, raspberries, strawberries, asparagus, peas, beans and corn. Then our canned-goods shelves and cupboards began to grow with preserves, tomato juice, grape juice, plums, jams and jellies. Eventually, the basement floor disappeared under piles of potatoes, squash and pumpkins, and the barn began to fill with apples and pears. It was amazing. 开春后,有过两次泛滥。一次是河水外溢,我们不少田地被淹了几个星期。接着一次 是生长季节到了,一波又一波的农产品潮涌而来,弄得我们应接不暇。我们的冰箱里塞满了

樱桃、蓝莓、草莓、芦笋、豌豆、青豆和玉米。接着我们存放食品罐的架子上、柜橱里也开 始堆满一罐罐的腌渍食品,有番茄汁、葡萄汁、李子、果酱和果冻。最后,地窖里遍地是大 堆大堆的土豆、西葫芦、南瓜,谷仓里也储满了苹果和梨。真是太美妙了。 8 The next year we grew even more food and managed to get through the winter on firewood that was mostly from our own trees and only 100 gallons of heating oil. At that point I began thinking seriously about quitting my job and starting to freelance. The timing was terrible. By then, Shawn and Amy, our oldest girls were attending expensive Ivy League schools and we had only a few thousand dollars in the bank. Yet we kept coming back to the same question: Will there ever be a better time? The answer, decidedly, was no, and so -- with my employer's blessings and half a year's pay in accumulated benefits in my pocket -- off I went. 第二年我们种了更多的作物, 差不多就靠着从自家树林砍斫的木柴以及仅仅 100 加仑 的燃油过了冬。 其时, 我开始认真考虑起辞了职去从事自由撰稿的事来。 时机选得实在太差。 当时, 两个大的女儿肖恩和埃米正在费用很高的常春藤学校上学, 而我们只有几千美金的银 行存款。但我们一再回到一个老问题上来:真的会有更好的时机吗?答案无疑是否定的。于 是,带着老板的祝福,口袋里揣着作为累积津贴的半年薪水,我走了。 9 There have been a few anxious moments since then, but on balance things have gone much better than we had any right to expect. For various stories of mine, I've crawled into black-bear dens for Sports Illustrated, hitched up dogsled racing teams for Smithsonian magazine, checked out the Lake Champlain "monster" for Science Digest, and canoed through the Boundary Waters wilderness area of Minnesota for Destinations. 那以后有过一些焦虑的时刻,但总的来说,情况比我们料想的要好得多。为了写那些 内容各不相同的文章,我为《体育画报》爬进过黑熊窝;为《史密森期刊》替参赛的一组组 狗套上过雪橇;为《科学文摘》调查过尚普兰湖水怪的真相;为《终点》杂志在明尼苏达划 着小舟穿越美、加边界水域内的公共荒野保护区。 10 I'm not making anywhere near as much money as I did when I was employed full time, but now we don't need as much either. I generate enough income to handle our $600-a-month mortgage payments plus the usual expenses for a family like ours. That includes everything from music lessons and dental bills to car repairs and college costs. When it comes to insurance, we have a poor man's major-medical policy. We have to pay the first $500 of any medical fees for each member of the family. It picks up 80% of the costs beyond that. Although we are stuck with paying minor expenses, our premium is low -- only $560 a year -- and we are covered against catastrophe. Aside from that and the policy on our two cars at $400 a year, we have no other insurance. But we are setting aside $2,000 a year in an IRA. 我挣的钱远比不上担任全职工作时的收入, 可如今我们需要的钱也没有过去多。 我挣 的钱足以应付每月 600 美金的房屋贷款按揭以及一家人的日常开销。 那些开销包括了所有支 出,如音乐课学费、牙医账单、汽车维修以及大学费用等等。至于保险,我们买了一份低收 入者的主要医疗项目保险。我们需要为每一位家庭成员的任何一项医疗费用支付最初的 500 美金。医疗保险则支付超出部分的 80%。虽然我们仍要支付小部分医疗费用,但我们的保 险费也低--每年只要 560 美金--而我们给自己生大病保了险。除了这一保险项目,以及两辆 汽车每年 400 美金的保险,我们就没有其他保险了。不过我们每年留出 2000 美元入个人退 休金账户。

11 We've been able to make up the difference in income by cutting back without appreciably lowering our standard of living. We continue to dine out once or twice a month, but now we patronize local restaurants instead of more expensive places in the city. We still attend the opera and ballet in Milwaukee but only a few times a year. We eat less meat, drink cheaper wine and see fewer movies. Extravagant Christmases are a memory, and we combine vacations with story assignments... 我们通过节约开支而又不明显降低生活水准的方式来弥补收入差额。 我们每个月仍出 去吃一两次饭,不过现在我们光顾的是当地餐馆,而不是城里的高级饭店。我们仍去密尔沃 基听歌剧看芭蕾演出,不过一年才几次。我们肉吃得少了,酒喝得便宜了,电影看得少了。 铺张的圣诞节成为一种回忆,我们把完成稿约作为度假的一部分?? 12 I suspect not everyone who loves the country would be happy living the way we do. It takes a couple of special qualities. One is a tolerance for solitude. Because we are so busy and on such a tight budget, we don't entertain much. During the growing season there is no time for socializing anyway. Jim and Emily are involved in school activities, but they too spend most of their time at home. 我想, 不是所有热爱乡村的人都会乐意过我们这种生活的。 这种生活需要一些特殊的 素质。 其一是耐得住寂寞。 由于我们如此忙碌, 手头又紧, 我们很少请客。 在作物生长季节, 根本就没工夫参加社交活动。 吉米和埃米莉虽然参加学校的各种活动, 但他俩大多数时间也 呆在家里。 13 The other requirement is energy -- a lot of it. The way to make self-sufficiency work on a small scale is to resist the temptation to buy a tractor and other expensive laborsaving devices. Instead, you do the work yourself. The only machinery we own (not counting the lawn mower) is a little three-horsepower rotary cultivator and a 16-inch chain saw. 另一项要求是体力――相当大的体力。 小范围里实现自给自足的途径是抵制诱惑, 不 去购置拖拉机和其他昂贵的节省劳力的机械。相反,你要自己动手。我们仅有的机器(不包 括割草机)是一台 3 马力的小型旋转式耕耘机以及一架 16 英寸的链锯。 14 How much longer we'll have enough energy to stay on here is anybody's guess -- perhaps for quite a while, perhaps not. When the time comes, we'll leave with a feeling of sorrow but also with a sense of pride at what we've been able to accomplish. We should make a fair profit on the sale of the place, too. We've invested about $35,000 of our own money in it, and we could just about double that if we sold today. But this is not a good time to sell. Once economic conditions improve, however, demand for farms like ours should be strong again. 没人知道我们还能有精力在这里再呆多久--也许呆很长一阵子,也许不是。到走的时 候,我们会怆然离去,但也会为自己所做的一切深感自豪。我们把农场出售也会赚相当大一 笔钱。我们自己在农场投入了约 35,000 美金的资金,要是现在售出的话价格差不多可以翻 一倍。不过现在不是出售的好时机。但是一旦经济形势好转,对我们这种农场的需求又会增 多。 15 We didn't move here primarily to earn money though. We came because we wanted to improve the quality of our lives. When I watch Emily collecting eggs in the evening, fishing with Jim on the river or enjoying an old-fashioned picnic in the orchard with the entire family, I know we've found just what we were looking for. 但我们主要不是为了赚钱而移居至此的。 我们来此居住是因为想提高生活质量。 当我

看着埃米莉傍晚去收鸡蛋, 跟吉米一起在河上钓鱼, 或和全家人一起在果园里享用老式的野 餐,我知道,我们找到了自己一直在寻求的生活方式。 Donna Barron describes how American family life has changed in recent years. She identifies three forces at work. What are they? Read on to find out. Then ask yourself whether similar forces are at work within China. Will family life here end up going in the same direction? 唐娜·巴伦描述了美国家庭生活近几年来的变化。她指出有三种力量在起作用。是哪 三种力量?请读本文。读后问一下自己,同样的力量在中国是否也在起作用。中国的家庭生 活最终是否会朝着同一个方向变化?

American Family Life: The Changing Picture
Donna Barron

1 It's another evening in an American household. 美国家庭生活:变化中的景象 唐娜·巴伦 这是美国家庭一个寻常的傍晚。 2 The door swings open at 5:30 sharp. "Hi, honey! I'm home!" In walks dear old Dad, hungry and tired after a long day at the office. He is greeted by Mom in her apron, three happy children, and the aroma of a delicious pot roast. 门在 5:30 准时推开。 “嗨,亲爱的!我回来了! ”亲爱的老爸走了进来,他在办公 室上了一天的班,肚子饿了,人也累了。迎接他的是系着围裙的妈妈,3 个快乐的孩子以及 炖肉诱人的香味。 3 After a leisurely meal together, Mom does the dishes. That, after all, is part of her job. The whole family then moves to the living room. There everyone spends the evening playing Scrabble or watching TV. 全家人从容地吃完饭后, 妈妈就刷洗碗碟。 反正这是她的活。 接着全家人聚在起居室。 一个晚上大家玩玩牌,看看电视。 4 Then everyone is off to bed. And the next morning Dad and the kids wake up to the sounds and smells of Mom preparing pancakes and sausages for breakfast. 随后各自上床睡觉。第二天早上,爸爸和孩子们在妈妈准备早餐发出的声响和薄饼、 香肠散发的香味中醒来。 5 (1) What? You say that doesn't sound like life in your house? Well, you're not alone. In fact, you're probably in the majority. 什么?你说那听起来不像你府上的生活?其实,不仅 仅是你一个人这么想。事实上,大多数人很可能都跟你一样这么想的。 6 At one time in America, the above household might have been typical. You can still visit

such a home -- on television. Just watch reruns of old situation comedies. (2) Leave it to Beaver, for example, shows Mom doing housework in pearls and high heels. Dad keeps his suit and tie on all weekend. But the families that operate like Beaver Cleaver's are fewer and fewer. They're disappearing because three parts of our lives have changed: the way we work, the way we eat, and the way we entertain ourselves. Becoming aware of the effects of those changes may help us improve family life. 上面描述的家庭可以说在美国曾一度相当典型。 如今你仍能见到这样的家庭――不过 得在电视里。只要看一看那些重播的情景剧老片子。例如, 《交给比弗吧》一剧中妈妈带着 珍珠项链、穿着高跟鞋做家务。爸爸整个周末都穿着西装,戴着领带。但像比弗·克立弗那 样的家庭越来越少了。那样的家庭正在消失,因为我们生活中的三个部分发生了变化:我们 的工作方式, 餐饮方式以及娱乐方式。 了解这些变化所带来的影响也许有助于我们改善家庭 生活。 7 Let's look first at the changes in the way we work. Today the words "Hi, honey! I'm home!" might not be spoken by dear old Dad. Dear old Mom is just as likely to be saying them. A generation ago, most households could get along on one paycheck -- Dad's. Mom stayed home, at least until the children started school. But today, over half the mothers with young children go to work. An even greater percentage of mothers of older children are in the workforce. And the number of single-parent homes has mushroomed in the last thirty years. 我们先来看一下我们工作方式的变化。今天, “嗨,亲爱的,我回家了! ”这句话可能 不是出自亲爱的老爸之口。亲爱的老妈也同样可能说这句话。在上一代,大多数家庭可以靠 一份工资――爸爸的工资――维持。妈妈呆在家里,至少在孩子上学前是如此。但今天,一 半以上有幼儿的母亲外出工作。 在职人员中有大孩子的母亲的比例更高。 而单亲家庭的数量 在过去 30 年中急剧增长。 8 These changes in work have affected children as well as parents. When only Dad went out to work, children came home from school to Mom. (In TV situation comedies, they came home to Mom and home-baked cookies) Today, we'll find them at an after-school program or a neighbor's house. Or they may come home to no one at all. In every community, children are caring for themselves until their parents return from work. Are these children missing out on an important part of childhood? Or are they developing a healthy sense of self-reliance? These are questions that Mrs. Cleaver never had to deal with. 工作方面的这些变化影响着家长以及孩子。 当父亲一人外出上班时, 孩子们放学回家 有妈妈在。 (在情景电视剧里,他们回家有妈妈在,还有家里做的饼干)如今,我们会在晚 托班或邻居家里见到他们。要不他们就回到空无一人的家。在各社区,孩子们都自己照管自 己, 直到父母下班回家。 这些孩子会不会失去童年时期本应有的一些重要的东西?还是会因 此培养起一种健康的自立意识?这些问题是克立弗太太过去从来不用操心的。

9 In addition, Dad and now Mom are often gone from home longer than ever. Not too long ago, most men worked close to home. The office or factory was just downtown. Dad often walked to work or hitched a ride with a friendly neighbor. But no more. 此外,爸爸,如今还有妈妈,在外的时间常常比以往任何时候都长。不多久前,大多 数男人还就近工作。办公室或者工厂就在市区。爸爸经常走着去上班,或者顺路搭友好邻居

的车。但现在不一样了。 10 Today's working men and women are commuters. They travel distances to work that would have made their parents gasp. Commutes of forty-five minutes or an hour are common. Workers travel on buses, subways, and crowded highways. Many leave their suburban homes at dawn and don't return until dark. No running home for lunch for today's commuter. 今天的上班男女都是坐车来回的。 他们上班距离之远会让他们的父母惊讶得倒抽一口 凉气。45 分钟或 1 小时的车程是常见的。上班族坐公共汽车、地铁,或开车行驶在交通拥 挤的公路上。不少人一清早就离开位于郊区的家,一直要到天黑了才回来。今天的通勤族不 再赶回家吃午饭。 11 And speaking of lunch, there's been a second big change in American family life. If both parents are away from home for long hours, who's whipping up those delicious meals in the kitchen? The answer, more and more, is nobody. 说起午饭,那正是美国家庭生活的第二大变化。要是父母都长时间不在家,那谁在厨 房里忙着准备美味的菜肴呢?越来越多听到的回答是没有人做饭。

12 These days, few people have time to shop for and prepare "home-style" meals. The Cleavers were used to dinners of pot roast or chicken. Potatoes, salad, and vegetables went with the main course, with pie or cake for dessert. But this kind of meal takes several hours to fix. People can't spend hours in the kitchen if they get home at 5:30. 如今,很少人有时间采购、烹制“家常”饭菜。克立弗一家常常吃炖肉或炖鸡,除主 菜外还有土豆、色拉、蔬菜,甜食是馅饼或蛋糕。但烧这种饭菜要花几个小时。要是人们 5: 30 才回到家,就无法在厨房里呆上几个小时。

13 So what do working families eat? They choose meals that are easy to prepare or are already prepared. Fast food, takeout, and heat-and-serve dishes make up much of the modern American diet. Dad may arrive home with a bag of Big Macs and shakes. Mom may phone out for Chinese food or ask the local pizza parlor to deliver. And more and more people rely on microwaves to thaw frozen food in minutes. 那么双职工家庭吃什么呢?他们选择容易烹制或已经烹制好的食品。 快餐, 外卖食物, 加热即食的菜肴构成了当今美国食谱的很大一部分。 爸爸可能带回家一大包巨无霸汉堡包和 饮料。 妈妈可能电话定购中国菜,或让附近的比萨店外送。越来越多的人依赖微波炉在几 分钟内把冷冻食品解冻。

14 One consequence of these quickly prepared meals is that families spend less time dining together. And classic fast foods, like hamburgers and fries, are meant to be eaten on the run, not slowly enjoyed at the dinner table. The modern family no longer shares the evening meal. As a result, it no longer shares the day's news... or the feeling of togetherness. 这些烹制简易的菜肴造成的后果之一是, 一家人一起坐下吃饭的时间少了。 传统的快 餐,如汉堡包,炸薯条,是让人匆匆忙忙吃的,而不是坐在餐桌旁慢慢享用的。现代家庭不 再一起享用晚餐。其结果是,大家不再相互交流一天的事,也感觉不到合家团聚的气氛。

15 Finally, what about after dinner? Is the family evening at least something the Cleavers could relate to? 最后一点, 晚饭之后又如何?晚上的家居生活总该跟克立弗家多少有几分相似了吧?

16

Not a chance. 没有丝毫相似之处。

17 We don't have to look outside the home to see the changes. The modern American family entertains itself in ways the Cleavers would never have dreamed of. 我们不必走出家门去看有什么变化。当今美国家庭的娱乐方式是克立弗家无从想像 的。

18 Thirty years ago, families gathered around a radio each evening. Later, television took over. Most families had just one set, which they watched together. Today, television and computers bring a dizzying array of entertainment into the home. Cable television provides everything from aerobics classes to Shakespeare. VCRs expand the choices even more. (3) If there's nothing good on network TV or cable, the video store offers the best and worst of Hollywood: recent movies, cartoons, "adult" films, exercise programs, travel, sports, how-to tapes. Computer games, which make viewers part of the action, also provide excitement. Players can compete in the Olympics, search out aliens, or wipe out entire civilizations on their little screens. 三十年前,家家户户每天晚上围坐着听收音机。后来电视机取而代之。大多数家庭只 有一台电视机, 全家人一起收看。 如今, 电视机和电脑将多得令人眩目的娱乐活动带入家庭。 有线电视播出的节目从有氧操到莎士比亚戏剧无所不有。 录像机更是扩大了选择性。 要是网 络电视或有线电视没有中意的节目,录像制品商店可提供好莱坞制作的品质迥异的各种节 目:新近发行的电影、动画片、"成人"电影、体育锻炼节目、旅游、体育以及入门指南录像 带。让收看人参与其间的电脑游戏也提供了相当的刺激。游戏者能在奥运会上施展身手,寻 找外星人,或者在小小的屏幕上摧毁整个文明国家。

19 With all these choices, it makes sense to own more than one television set. The two-or-more-TV family used to be rare. (4) Nowadays, Dad might want to rent an action movie when Mom's cable shopping service is on. Or Junior is playing a let's-blow-up-Saturn video game while Sis wants to see The Simpsons. Why not invest in several sets? Then each family member can enjoy himself or herself in peace. 有了那么多的选择, 拥有一台以上的电视机也就合乎情理了。 过去很少有人家拥有一 台以上电视机。如今,妈妈在看她的有线电视销售服务节目的时候,爸爸可能想租一部动作 片。而在女儿想看《辛普森一家》时,儿子却在玩《让我们炸毁土星》的电子游戏。何不多 买几台呢?那样每一个家庭成员都可以互不干扰地看各自喜爱的节目。

20

What's wrong with this picture of today's family? 当今家庭的这一景象有何弊端呢?

21 Only this. Today's Cleavers spend their evenings in front of their separate TV screens. Then they go to bed. The next morning, they rush off to their separate jobs (work and school). They come home at separate times. They eat separately. Finally, they return to their separate TV screens for another evening's entertainment. During all these times, when do they talk to each other or even see each other? When are they a family? 只有一个弊端。今天的克立弗一家晚上各自守着自己的电视机。随后他们各自上床。 第二天早上,他们匆匆忙忙各奔各的岗位(上班或上学) 。他们在各自不同的时间回家。他 们分头吃饭。最后,他们又各自回到自己的电视机前,各自进行晚上的娱乐活动。在所有这 些时段当中,他们什么时候相互交谈或见面呢?家人什么时候才相聚呢? 22 Certain realities of modern life cannot change. One is the need, in most families, for both parents to bring home a paycheck. Another is the distance many of us must travel to work or to school. But must everything change? And must we lose the family structure in the process? 现代生活的某些现实无法改变。 其一是大多数家庭需要父母两个人的工资收入。 其二 是许多人必得去较远处上班或上学。 可是, 非得为此改变一切吗?我们非得在这一过程中丧 失原有的家庭结构吗? 23 No one is suggesting that we go back to the 1950s. The Cleaver household was a fantasy even then, not reality. But we might borrow one important lesson from the Cleavers. It is that family life is just as important as work or play. If we agree, we'll find ways of spending more time together. We'll find things to share. And then there will be something right with the picture. 没有人说我们应该回到五十年代去。 克立弗家庭即使在当时也只是虚构而非现实。 但 我们或许能从这一人家获得一个重要的借鉴,即家庭生活和工作、娱乐同样重要。如果我们 同意这一看法, 我们就能设法找到更多时间聚在一起。 我们就能找到共同的兴趣。 那样的话, 我们家庭生活的情景就颇为美妙了。

unit 2 The Freedom Givers
In 2004 a center in honor of the "underground railroad" opens in Cincinnati. The railroad was unusual. It sold no tickets and had no trains. Yet it carried thousands of passengers to the destination of their dreams. 2004 年,一个纪念“地下铁路”的中心将在辛辛那提州成立。这条铁路不同寻常, 它不出售车票,也无火车行驶。然而,它将成千上万的乘客送往他们梦想中的目的地。

The Freedom Givers
Fergus M. Bordewich 1 A gentle breeze swept the Canadian plains as I stepped outside the small two-story house.

Alongside me was a slender woman in a black dress, my guide back to a time when the surrounding settlement in Dresden, Ontario, was home to a hero in American history. As we walked toward a plain gray church, Barbara Carter spoke proudly of her great-great-grandfather, Josiah Henson. "He was confident that the Creator intended all men to be created equal. And he never gave up struggling for that freedom." 给人以自由者 弗格斯·M·博得威奇 我步出这幢两层小屋,加拿大平原上轻风微拂。我身边是一位苗条的黑衣女子,把我 带回到过去的向导。那时,安大略省得雷斯顿这一带住着美国历史上的一位英雄。我们前往 一座普普通通的灰色教堂,芭芭拉·卡特自豪地谈论着其高祖乔赛亚·亨森。 “他坚信上帝 要所有人生来平等。他从来没有停止过争取这一自由权利的奋斗。 ” 2 Carter's devotion to her ancestor is about more than personal pride: it is about family honor. For Josiah Henson has lived on through the character in American fiction that he helped inspire: Uncle Tom, the long-suffering slave in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Ironically, that character has come to symbolize everything Henson was not. A racial sellout unwilling to stand up for himself? Carter gets angry at the thought. "Josiah Henson was a man of principle," she said firmly. 卡特对其先辈的忠诚不仅仅关乎一己之骄傲,而关乎家族荣誉。因为乔赛亚·亨森至 今仍为人所知是由于他所激发的创作灵感使得一个美国小说人物问世: 汤姆叔叔, 哈丽特· 比 彻·斯陀的小说《汤姆叔叔的小屋》中那个逆来顺受的黑奴。具有讽刺意味的是,这一人物 所象征的一切在亨森身上一点都找不到。 一个不愿奋起力争、 背叛种族的黑人?卡特对此颇 为愤慨。 “乔赛亚·亨森是个有原则的人, ”她肯定地说。 3 I had traveled here to Henson's last home -- now a historic site that Carter formerly directed -- to learn more about a man who was, in many ways, an African-American Moses. After winning his own freedom from slavery, Henson secretly helped hundreds of other slaves to escape north to Canada -- and liberty. Many settled here in Dresden with him. 我远道前来亨森最后的居所――如今已成为卡特曾管理过的一处历史遗迹――是为 了更多地了解此人,他在许多方面堪称黑人摩西。亨森自己摆脱了黑奴身份获得自由之后, 便秘密帮助其他许多黑奴逃奔北方去加拿大――逃奔自由之地。 许多人和他一起在得雷斯顿 这一带定居了下来。 4 Yet this stop was only part of a much larger mission for me. Josiah Henson is but one name on a long list of courageous men and women who together forged the Underground Railroad, a secret web of escape routes and safe houses that they used to liberate slaves from the American South. Between 1820 and 1860, as many as 100,000 slaves traveled the Railroad to freedom. 但此地只是我所承担的繁重使命的一处停留地。 乔赛亚· 亨森只是一长串无所畏惧的 男女名单中的一个名字,这些人共同创建了这条“地下铁路” ,一条由逃亡线路和可靠的人 家组成的用以解放美国南方黑奴的秘密网络。 在 1820 年至 1860 年期间, 多达十万名黑奴经 由此路走向自由。 5 In October 2000, President Clinton authorized $16 million for the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center to honor this first great civil-rights struggle in the U. S. The center is

scheduled to open in 2004 in Cincinnati. And it's about time. For the heroes of the Underground Railroad remain too little remembered, their exploits still largely unsung. I was intent on telling their stories. 2000 年 10 月,克林顿总统批准拨款 1600 万美元建造全国“地下铁路” 自由中心,以此纪念美国历史上第一次伟大的民权斗争。中心计划于 2004 年在辛辛那提州 建成。真是该建立这样一个中心的时候了。因为地下铁路的英雄们依然默默无闻,他们的业 绩依然少人颂扬。我要讲述他们的故事。 6 John Parker tensed when he heard the soft knock. Peering out his door into the night, he recognized the face of a trusted neighbor. "There's a party of escaped slaves hiding in the woods in Kentucky, twenty miles from the river," the man whispered urgently. Parker didn't hesitate. "I'll go," he said, pushing a pair of pistols into his pockets. 听到轻轻的敲门声,约翰·帕克神情紧张起来。他开门窥望,夜色中认出是一位可靠 的邻居。 “有一群逃亡奴隶躲在肯塔基州的树林里,就在离河 20 英里的地方, ”那人用急迫 的口气低语道。帕克没一点儿迟疑。 “我就去, ”他说着,把两支手枪揣进口袋。 7 Born a slave two decades before, in the 1820s, Parker had been taken from his mother at age eight and forced to walk in chains from Virginia to Alabama, where he was sold on the slave market. Determined to live free someday, he managed to get trained in iron molding. Eventually he saved enough money working at this trade on the side to buy his freedom. Now, by day, Parker worked in an iron foundry in the Ohio port of Ripley. By night he was a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad, helping people slip by the slave hunters. In Kentucky, where he was now headed, there was a $1000 reward for his capture, dead or alive. 20 年前,即 19 世纪 20 年代,生来即为黑奴的帕克才 8 岁就被从母亲身边带走,被 迫拖着镣铐从弗吉尼亚走到阿拉巴马, 在那里的黑奴市场被买走。 他打定主意有朝一日要过 自由的生活, 便设法学会了铸铁这门手艺。 后来他终于靠这门手艺攒够钱赎回了自由。 现在, 帕克白天在俄亥俄州里普利港的一家铸铁厂干活。到了晚上,他就成了地下铁路的一位“乘 务员” , 帮助人们避开追捕逃亡黑奴的人。 在他正前往的肯塔基州, 当局悬赏 1000 美元抓他, 活人死尸都要。 8 Crossing the Ohio River on that chilly night, Parker found ten fugitives frozen with fear. "Get your bundles and follow me, " he told them, leading the eight men and two women toward the river. They had almost reached shore when a watchman spotted them and raced off to spread the news. 在那个阴冷的夜晚,帕克渡过俄亥俄河,找到了十个丧魂落魄的逃亡者。 “拿好包裹 跟我走, ”他一边吩咐他们,一边带着这八男二女朝河边走去。就要到岸时,一个巡夜人发 现了他们,急忙跑开去报告。 9 Parker saw a small boat and, with a shout, pushed the escaping slaves into it. There was room for all but two. As the boat slid across the river, Parker watched helplessly as the pursuers closed in around the men he was forced to leave behind. 帕克看见一条小船,便大喝一声,把那些逃亡黑奴推上了船。大家都上了船,但有两 个人容不下。小船徐徐驶向对岸,帕克眼睁睁地看着追捕者把他被迫留下的两个男人围住。 10 The others made it to the Ohio shore, where Parker hurriedly arranged for a wagon to take

them to the next "station" on the Underground Railroad -- the first leg of their journey to safety in Canada. Over the course of his life, John Parker guided more than 400 slaves to safety. 其他的人都上了岸,帕克急忙安排了一辆车把他们带到地下铁路的下一“站”――他 们走向安全的加拿大之旅的第一程。 约翰· 帕克在有生之年一共带领 400 多名黑奴走向安全 之地。 11 While black conductors were often motivated by their own painful experiences, whites were commonly driven by religious convictions. Levi Coffin, a Quaker raised in North Carolina, explained, "The Bible, in bidding us to feed the hungry and clothe the naked, said nothing about color." 黑人去当乘务员常常是由于本人痛苦的经历, 而那些白人则往往是受了宗教信仰的感 召。在北卡罗来纳州长大的贵格会教徒利瓦伊·科芬解释说: “ 《圣经》上只是要我们给饥者 以食物,无衣者以衣衫,但没提到过肤色的事。 ” 12 In the 1820s Coffin moved west to Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana, where he opened a store. Word spread that fleeing slaves could always find refuge at the Coffin home. At times he sheltered as many as 17 fugitives at once, and he kept a team and wagon ready to convey them on the next leg of their journey. Eventually three principal routes converged at the Coffin house, which came to be the Grand Central Terminal of the Underground Railroad. 在 19 世纪 20 年代,科芬向西迁移前往印第安纳州的新港(即今天的喷泉市) ,在那 里开了一家小店。人们传说,逃亡黑奴在科芬家总是能得到庇护。有时他一次庇护的逃亡者 就多达 17 人,他还备有一组人员和车辆把他们送往下一段行程。到后来有三条主要路线在 科芬家汇合,科芬家成了地下铁路的中央车站。 13 For his efforts, Coffin received frequent death threats and warnings that his store and home would be burned. Nearly every conductor faced similar risks -- or worse. In the North, a magistrate might have imposed a fine or a brief jail sentence for aiding those escaping. In the Southern states, whites were sentenced to months or even years in jail. One courageous Methodist minister, Calvin Fairbank, was imprisoned for more than 17 years in Kentucky, where he kept a log of his beatings: 35,105 stripes with the whip. 科芬经常由于他做的工作受到被杀的威胁, 收到焚毁他店铺和住宅的警告。 几乎每一 个乘务员都面临类似的危险――或者更为严重。 在北方, 治安官会对帮助逃亡的人课以罚金, 或判以短期监禁。在南方各州,白人则被判处几个月甚至几年的监禁。一位勇敢的循道宗牧 师卡尔文·费尔班克在肯塔基州被关押了 17 年多,他记录了自己遭受毒打的情况:总共被 鞭笞了 35,105 下。 14 As for the slaves, escape meant a journey of hundreds of miles through unknown country, where they were usually easy to recognize. With no road signs and few maps, they had to put their trust in directions passed by word of mouth and in secret signs -- nails driven into trees, for example -- that conductors used to mark the route north. 至于那些黑奴, 逃亡意味着数百英里的长途跋涉, 意味着穿越自己极易被人辨认的陌 生地域。没有路标,也几乎没有线路图,他们赶路全凭着口口相告的路线以及秘密记号―― 比如树上钉着的钉子――是乘务员用来标示北上路线的记号。

15 Many slaves traveled under cover of night, their faces sometimes caked with white powder. Quakers often dressed their "passengers," both male and female, in gray dresses, deep bonnets and full veils. On one occasion, Levi Coffin was transporting so many runaway slaves that he disguised them as a funeral procession. 许多黑奴在夜色掩护下赶路, 有时脸上涂着厚厚的白粉。 贵格会教徒经常让他们的 “乘 客” 不分男女穿上灰衣服, 戴上深沿帽, 披着把头部完全遮盖住的面纱。 有一次, 利瓦伊· 科 芬运送的逃亡黑奴实在太多,他就把他们装扮成出殡队伍。 16 Canada was the primary destination for many fugitives. Slavery had been abolished there in 1833, and Canadian authorities encouraged the runaways to settle their vast virgin land. Among them was Josiah Henson. 加拿大是许多逃亡者的首选终点站。那儿 1833 年就废除了奴隶制,加拿大当局鼓励 逃亡奴隶在其广阔的未经开垦的土地上定居。其中就有乔赛亚·亨森。 17 As a boy in Maryland, Henson watched as his entire family was sold to different buyers, and he saw his mother harshly beaten when she tried to keep him with her. Making the best of his lot, Henson worked diligently and rose far in his owner's regard. 还是孩子的亨森在马里兰州目睹着全家人被卖给不同的主人, 看到母亲为了想把自己 留在她身边而遭受毒打。亨森非常认命,干活勤勉,深受主人器重。 18 Money problems eventually compelled his master to send Henson, his wife and children to a brother in Kentucky. After laboring there for several years, Henson heard alarming news: the new master was planning to sell him for plantation work far away in the Deep South. The slave would be separated forever from his family. 经济困顿最终迫使亨森的主人将他及其妻儿送到主人在肯塔基州的一个兄弟处。 在那 儿干了几年苦工之后, 亨森听说了一个可怕的消息: 新主人准备把他卖到遥远的南方腹地去 农庄干活。这名奴隶将与自己的家人永远分离。 19 There was only one answer: flight. "I knew the North Star," Henson wrote years later. "Like the star of Bethlehem, it announced where my salvation lay. " 只有一条路可走:逃亡。 “我会认北斗星, ”许多年后亨森写道。 “就像圣地伯利恒的 救星一样,它告诉我在哪里可以获救。 ” 20 At huge risk, Henson and his wife set off with their four children. Two weeks later, starving and exhausted, the family reached Cincinnati, where they made contact with members of the Underground Railroad. "Carefully they provided for our welfare, and then they set us thirty miles on our way by wagon." 亨森和妻子冒着极大的风险带着四个孩子上路了。 两个星期之后, 饥饿疲惫的一家人 来到了辛辛那提州,在那儿,他们与地下铁路的成员取得了联系。 “他们为我们提供了食宿, 非常关心,接着又用车送了我们 30 英里。 ” 21 The Hensons continued north, arriving at last in Buffalo, N. Y. There a friendly captain pointed across the Niagara River. "'Do you see those trees?' he said. 'They grow on free soil.'" He gave Henson a dollar and arranged for a boat, which carried the slave and his family across the

river to Canada. 亨森一家继续往北走,最后来到纽约州的布法罗。在那儿,一位友善的船长指着尼亚 加拉河对岸。 “ ‘看见那些树没有?’他说, ‘它们生长在自由的土地上。 ’ ”他给了亨森一美 元钱,安排了一条小船,小船载着这位黑奴及其家人过河来到加拿大。 22 "I threw myself on the ground, rolled in the sand and danced around, till, in the eyes of several who were present, I passed for a madman. 'He's some crazy fellow,' said a Colonel Warren." “我扑倒在地,在沙土里打滚,手舞足蹈,最后,在场的那几个人都认定我是疯子。 ‘他是个疯子, ’有个沃伦上校说。 ” 23 "'Oh, no! Don't you know? I'm free!'" “ ‘不,不是的!知道吗?我自由了! ’ ”

Jesse Jackson, a well-known leader of black Americans, reviews the progress they have made in recent years. Despite this, he argues, there is still much left to be done before they enjoy full equality. 著名美国黑人领袖杰西· 杰克逊回顾了近几年来民权运动所取得的成就。 成绩固然不 少,但他指出,要享受完全的平等权利,仍有许多工作要做。

B:
一直到二十世纪六十年代以前, 黑人在美国的许多领域都无法享受到与白人一样的权利, 美 国南方一些州的法律仍然实行各族隔离, 这些法律迫使黑人上单独的学校、 居住在城市某个 单独的区域,就是乘坐公共汽车,也只能坐在单独的区域。1955 年 12 月 1 日,在美国南 部的阿拉巴马州蒙哥马利市,一位 42 岁的黑人妇女乘坐公共汽车,当时法律要求黑人只能 坐在白人让他们坐的位置上,这位妇女拒绝这么做,于是她被捕了。蒙哥马利市的这一和平 不服从行为开启了黑人抗议大幕, 它导致美国少数民族权利的合法转变。 开启美国民权运动 这一大幕的妇女就是罗莎.帕克斯。今天,我们就向你讲述她的故事。 1913 年,罗莎.帕克斯出生于阿拉巴马州 Tuskegee 的罗莎.路易丝.麦克利家,她 11 岁时才 在当地的学校上学,之后,她被送到蒙哥马利市上学。为了照顾她病中的奶奶,她高中时退 学,随后她又照顾她的母亲。她一直到 21 岁时,才完成高中的学业。1932 年,她与雷蒙 德.帕克斯结婚,雷蒙德是一位理发师,他还是一位民权活动家。结婚后,他们共同为美国 有色人种发展联合会在当地的机构工作。在 1943 年,帕克斯太太成为该组织的一名官员, 后来又成为该组织的一名领导人。罗莎.帕克斯是蒙哥马利市的一名缝纫师,她从二十世纪 三十年代一直到 1955 年一直做裁缝,后来,她成为无数非裔美国人追求自由的代表。 二十世纪五十年代,在美国南方的许多地区,城市公交车前几排坐位都只能由白人来坐,黑 人一般坐在后面,而在中间,白人与黑人都可以坐,但当黑人坐在中间,如果白人想要坐人 话,黑人就得将坐位让给白人。

罗莎.帕克斯和其他三个黑人坐在中间,此时有一个白人上了公交车,想要一个坐位。司机 命令所有的黑人都离开他们的坐位, 这样白人就可以不必与他们中的任何一个黑人坐在一起 了。这三个黑人站了起来,但帕克斯太太拒绝了,于是她被捕了。在关于此事件的一些流传 的说法中,有一个说法是,帕克斯太太之所以拒绝让坐,是因为她的脚实在是太累。但几年 后她自己说,那个说法是错误的。她说,她真正感到厌倦的是接受不平等的待遇。她后来解 释说,这里似乎就是她要停止那种令人摆布、追求她应有的人权的地方。 蒙哥马利的一个黑人妇女活动组织是著名的一个妇女政治理事会, 这个组织正在努力反对黑 人在公交车上所受到的不公平待遇。黑人由于冒犯公交司机的命令而经常被捕,甚至被杀。 罗莎.帕克斯不是第一个拒绝将自己的坐位让给白人的黑人,但蒙哥马利的黑人组织认为她 成为那些抗议者中的有权利的公民, 因为她是该城市中最优秀的一位公民。 这个妇女组织立 即呼吁蒙哥马利市的所有黑人在帕克斯太太受审的那天拒绝乘坐公交车,这一天是 12 月 5 日,星期一。其结果,这一天,有四万人步行或使用其他的交通工具。那天晚上,全城举行 集会, 蒙哥马利市的黑人同意继续联合抵制乘坐市公交车, 一直到他们所受的不平等待遇结 束为止。他们还要求市政官员雇用黑人司机,而且任何人都可以坐在公交车的中间,而不必 给他人让坐。 蒙哥马利市联合抵制公交车行动一直持续了 381 天,这一行动是由当地黑人领导人尼克松 和一名年轻黑人部长马丁.路德.金领导的。 类似的抗议活动在其他南方城市相继出现。 最后, 美国最高法院对帕克斯太太的案件作出裁决, 该裁决城市公交车上实施种族隔离为非法。 这 一裁决于 1956 年 11 月 13 日作出,几乎是帕克斯太太被捕的一年之后。蒙哥马利市的联合 抵制乘坐公交车的行动于该裁决到达的当天,即 1956 年 12 月 20 日结束。罗莎.帕克斯和 马丁.路德.金在美国南方开始了非暴力抗议运动,这一非暴力抗议运动永远改变了美国的民 权状况。马丁.路德.金成为该运动著名的演说家,但他没能看到他所为之努力的成果,而罗 莎.帕克斯看到了。 在联合抵制乘坐公交车后,罗莎.帕克斯和她家庭的生活越来越困难,她被解雇了,而且没 能找到工作,所以,帕克斯一家离开蒙哥马利,他们搬到了维吉尼亚,后来又搬到了密歇根 州的底特律。 帕克斯太太在 1965 年以前一直做裁缝。 后来, 密歇根州国会代表 John Conyers 给她提供了一份岗位――――在他位于底特律的国会办公室中工作, 她从事此项工作一直到 1988 年退休为止。 纵观她的一生,罗莎.帕克斯一直为全国有色人种发展联合会(NAACP)工作,并参与了各 种民权活动。 她是一位宁静的女性, 这似乎与她的名声不怎么相符。 但她说, 她想帮助别人, 特别是想帮助年轻人,让他们自己而更好地生活,同时也帮助他人。在 1987 年,她成立了 罗莎-雷蒙德.帕克斯自我发展协会,以帮助改善黑人儿童的生活状况。 罗莎.帕克斯由于她在民权运动的杰出贡献而获得两项国家最高荣誉。 在 1996 年, 克林顿总 统授予她总统自由勋章,在 1999 年,她又获得了国会授予的金质勋章。 在她晚年,人们经常问罗莎.帕克斯,当民权法律在二十世纪六十年代得到通过后,种族之 间的关系得到了多少改善, 她认为消除种族之间的隔阂还有很长的路要走, 她仍然关注美国 的种族平等运动。罗莎.帕克斯于 2005 年 10 月 24 日逝世,享年 92 岁。她的遗体被安放在 华盛顿的美国国会大厦, 她是第一位获此荣誉的美国女性。 三万多人静静地向她的遗体告别,

以显示他们对她的敬仰。Conyers 众议员谈到,这位女性平静的力量对美国意味着什么,他 说:“在美国,只有少数几个人敢说,他们的行为改变了美国的形象,罗莎.帕克斯就是其中 之一。”

unit 3 The Land of the Lock

Years ago in America, it was customary for families to leave their doors unlocked, day and night. In this essay, Greene regrets that people can no longer trust each other and have to resort to elaborate security systems to protect themselves and their possessions. 许多年前,在美国,家家户户白天黑夜不锁门是司空见惯的。在本文中,格林叹惜人 们不再相互信任,不得不凭借精密的安全设备来保护自己和财产。 The Land of the Lock Bob Greene 1 In the house where I grew up, it was our custom to leave the front door on the latch at night. I don't know if that was a local term or if it is universal; "on the latch" meant the door was closed but not locked. None of us carried keys; the last one in for the evening would close up, and that was it. 锁之国 鲍伯·格林 小时候在家里, 我们的前门总是夜不落锁。 我不知道这是当地的一种说法还是大家都 这么说;"不落锁"的意思是掩上门,但不锁住。我们谁都不带钥匙;晚上最后一个回家的人 把门关上,这就行了。 2 Those days are over. In rural areas as well as in cities, doors do not stay unlocked, even for part of an evening. 那样的日子已经一去不复返了。在乡下,在城里,门不再关着不锁上,哪怕是傍晚一 段时间也不例外。 3 Suburbs and country areas are, in many ways, even more vulnerable than well-patroled urban streets. Statistics show the crime rate rising more dramatically in those allegedly tranquil areas than in cities. At any rate, the era of leaving the front door on the latch is over. 在许多方面,郊区和农村甚至比巡查严密的城市街道更易受到攻击。统计显示,那些 据称是安宁的地区的犯罪率上升得比城镇更为显著。 不管怎么说, 前门虚掩不落锁的时代是

一去不复返了。 4 It has been replaced by dead-bolt locks, security chains, electronic alarm systems and trip wires hooked up to a police station or private guard firm. Many suburban families have sliding glass doors on their patios, with steel bars elegantly built in so no one can pry the doors open. 取而代之的是防盗锁、防护链、电子报警系统,以及连接警署或私人保安公司的报警 装置。郊区的许多人家在露台上安装了玻璃滑门,内侧有装得很讲究的钢条,这样就没人能 把门撬开。 5 It is not uncommon, in the most pleasant of homes, to see pasted on the windows small notices announcing that the premises are under surveillance by this security force or that guard company. 在最温馨的居家,也常常看得到窗上贴着小小的告示,称本宅由某家安全 机构或某个保安公司负责监管。 6 The lock is the new symbol of America. Indeed, a recent public-service advertisement by a large insurance company featured not charts showing how much at risk we are, but a picture of a child's bicycle with the now-usual padlock attached to it. 锁成了美国的新的象征。 的确, 一家大保险公司最近的一则公益广告没有用图表表明 我们所处的危险有多大,而是用了一幅童车的图片,车身上悬着如今无所不在的挂锁。 7 The ad pointed out that, yes, it is the insurance companies that pay for stolen goods, but who is going to pay for what the new atmosphere of distrust and fear is doing to our way of life? Who is going to make the psychic payment for the transformation of America from the Land of the Free to the Land of the Lock? 广告指出,没错,确是保险公司理赔失窃物品,但谁来赔偿互不信任、担心害怕这种 新氛围对我们的生活方式所造成的影响呢?谁来对美国从自由之国到锁之国这一蜕变作出 精神赔偿呢? 8 For that is what has happened. We have become so used to defending ourselves against the new atmosphere of American life, so used to putting up barriers, that we have not had time to think about what it may mean. 因为那就是现状。 我们已经变得如此习惯于保护自己不受美国生活新氛围的影响, 如 此习惯于设置障碍,因而无暇考虑这一切意味着什么。 9 For some reason we are satisfied when we think we are well-protected; it does not occur to us to ask ourselves: Why has this happened? Why are we having to barricade ourselves against our neighbors and fellow citizens, and when, exactly, did this start to take over our lives? 出于某种原因,当我们觉得防范周密时就感到心满意足;我们没有问过自己:为什么 会出现这种情况?为什么非得把自己与邻居和同住一城的居民相隔绝, 这一切究竟是从什么 时候开始主宰我们生活的? 10 And it has taken over. If you work for a medium- to large-size company, chances are that you don't just wander in and out of work. You probably carry some kind of access card, electronic or otherwise, that allows you in and out of your place of work. Maybe the security guard at the

front desk knows your face and will wave you in most days, but the fact remains that the business you work for feels threatened enough to keep outsiders away via these "keys." 这一切确是主宰了我们的生活。 如果你在一家大中型公司上班, 你上下班很可能不好 随意进出。你可能随身带着某种出入卡,电子的或别的什么的,因为这卡能让你进出工作场 所。也许前台的保安认识你这张脸,平日一挥手让你进去,但事实明摆着,你所任职的公司 深感面临威胁,因此要借助这些“钥匙”不让外人靠近。 11 It wasn't always like this. Even a decade ago, most private businesses had a policy of free access. It simply didn't occur to managers that the proper thing to do was to distrust people. 这一现象并非向来有之。即使在十年前,大多数私营公司仍采取自由出入的做法。那 时管理人员根本没想到过恰当的手段是不信任他人。 12 Look at the airports. Parents used to take children out to departure gates to watch planes land and take off. That's all gone. Airports are no longer a place of education and fun; they are the most sophisticated of security sites. 且看各地机场。过去家长常常带孩子去登机口看飞机起飞降落。这种事再也没有了。 机场不再是一个有趣的学习场所;它们成了拥有最精密的安全检查系统的场所。 13 With electronic X-ray equipment, we seem finally to have figured out a way to hold the terrorists, real and imagined, at bay; it was such a relief to solve this problem that we did not think much about what such a state of affairs says about the quality of our lives. We now pass through these electronic friskers without so much as a sideways glance; the machines, and what they stand for, have won. 凭借着电子透视装置, 我们似乎终于想出妙计让恐怖分子无法近身, 无论是真的恐怖 分子还是凭空臆想的。 能解决这一问题真是如释重负, 于是我们不去多想这种状况对我们的 生活质量意味着什么。如今我们走过这些电子搜查器时已经看都不看一眼了,这些装置,还 有它们所代表的一切已经获胜。 14 Our neighborhoods are bathed in high-intensity light; we do not want to afford ourselves even so much a luxury as a shadow. 我们的居住区处在强光源的照射下;我们连哪怕像阴影这样小小的享受也不想给自 己。 15 Businessmen, in increasing numbers, are purchasing new machines that hook up to the telephone and analyze a caller's voice. The machines are supposed to tell the businessman, with a small margin of error, whether his friend or client is telling lies. 越来越多的商人正购置连接在电话机上、 能剖析来电者声音的新机器。 据说那种机器 能让商人知道他的朋友或客户是否在撒谎,其出错概率很小。 16 All this is being done in the name of "security"; that is what we tell ourselves. We are fearful, and so we devise ways to lock the fear out, and that, we decide, is what security means. 所有这一切都是以“安全”的名义实施的:我们是这么跟自己说的。我们害怕,于是 我们设法把害怕锁在外面,我们认定,那就是安全的意义。

17 But no; with all this "security," we are perhaps the most insecure nation in the history of civilized man. What better word to describe the way in which we have been forced to live? What sadder reflection on all that we have become in this new and puzzling time? 其实不然; 我们虽然有了这一切安全措施, 但我们或许是人类文明史上最不安全的国 民。 还有什么更好的字眼能用来描述我们被迫选择的生活方式呢?还有什么更为可悲地表明 我们在这个令人困惑的新时代所感受到的惶恐之情呢? 18 We trust no one. Suburban housewives wear rape whistles on their station wagon key chains. We have become so smart about self-protection that, in the end, we have all outsmarted ourselves. We may have locked the evils out, but in so doing we have locked ourselves in. 我们不信任任何人。 郊区的家庭主妇在客货两用车钥匙链上挂着防强暴口哨。 我们在 自我防卫方面变得如此聪明,最终聪明反被聪明误。我们或许是把邪恶锁在了门外,但在这 么做的同时我们把自己锁在里边了。

19 That may be the legacy we remember best when we look back on this age: In dealing with the unseen horrors among us, we became prisoners of ourselves. All of us prisoners, in this time of our troubles. 那也许是我们将来回顾这一时代时记得最牢的精神遗产: 在对付我们中间无形的恐惧 之时,我们成了自己的囚徒。在我们这个问题重重的时代,所有的人都是囚徒。 Many people in America own handguns. Some, like Gail Buchalter, buy a gun for self-defense. Others, like her friends, refuse to do so because they think that guns cause more problems than they solve. Gail used to share her friends' views, but eventually changed her mind. Read what she has to say and decide whether she made the right choice. 在美国,许多人拥有手枪。有人为了自卫买枪,如盖尔·巴卡尔特。另外一些人则 拒绝这么做,比如她的许多朋友,因为他们认为,枪支引发的问题比解决的更多。以前盖尔 与她的朋友们持有相同的观点,但后来她改变了看法。读一读她所说的一切,并判定她的选 择是否明智。

Why I Bought A Gun
Gail Buchalter 1 I was raised in one of Manhattan's more desirable neighborhoods. My upper-middle-class background never involved guns. If my parents felt threatened, they simply put another lock on the door. 我为什么买枪 盖尔·巴卡尔特 我在曼哈顿一个相当不错的社区长大。 我的中上阶级的社会背景从来与枪支无涉。 我 的父母要是觉得有威胁存在,他们仅仅是在门上再加把锁。 2 By high school, I had traded in my cashmere sweaters for a black arm band. I marched for Civil Rights, shunned Civil Defense drills and protested the Vietnam war. It was easy being 18 and a peacenik. I wasn't raising an 11-year-old child then.

高中时,我用一件开司米羊毛衫跟人换了个黑色的臂章。我参加人权游行,反对国防 演习,抗议越南战争。作为妙龄 18 的少女,当一名反战分子,真是轻松自在。那时我还没 有一个 11 岁的孩子要抚养。 3 (1) Today, I am typical of the women whom gun manufactures have been aiming at as potential buyers -- and one of the millions who have taken the plunge. 时至今日,我成了一个典型的被枪支制造商看重并视为其潜在买主的那种女人--成了 成千上万个采取这种行动的人中的一员。 4 I began questioning my pacifist beliefs one Halloween night in Phoenix, where I had moved when I married. I was almost home when another car nearly hit mine head-on. With the speed of a New York cabbie, I rolled down my window and screamed curses as the driver passed. He instantly made a U-turn, almost climbing on my back bumper. By now, he and his two friends were hanging out of the car windows, yelling that they were going to rape, cut and kill me. 一个万圣节的晚上,在我婚后移居的凤凰城,我开始怀疑自己的和平主义信条。一辆 车与我的车差点迎头相撞时,我几乎都到家了。我以纽约城出租车司机的敏捷,快速摇下车 窗高声咒骂那位开车的。他当即掉转车头,几乎撞上我的车后保险杠。这时,他和两个同伴 从车窗伸出头来,嚷嚷着要强奸我,砍我,杀了我。 5 I already had turned into our driveway when I realized my husband wasn't home. I was trapped. The car had pulled in behind me. I drove up to the back porch and got into the kitchen, where our dogs stood waiting for me. The three men spilled out of their car and into our yard. 我开进车道才想起丈夫不在家。这下我进退两难。那辆车尾随着跟了进来。我把车开到后门 廊停下,冲进厨房,我家的那两条狗站在那儿等我。那三个家伙从汽车里一拥而出,进了院 子。 6 My heart was pumping. I grabbed the collars of Jack, our 200-pound Irish wolfhound, and his 140-pound malamute buddy, Slush. Then I kicked open the back door -- I was so scared that I became aggressive -- and actually dared the three creeps to keep coming. With the dogs, the odds had changed in my favor, and the men ran back to the safety of their car, yelling that they'd be back the next day to blow me away. Fortunately, they never returned. 我的心怦怦直跳。 我抓起杰克和斯露西的颈圈――一条是 200 磅重的爱尔兰狼狗, 另 一条是它的伙伴, 140 磅重的北极犬。 随后我一脚踢开后门――我吓坏了, 变得暴躁好斗―― 事实上我要激那三人过来。有狗相助,局势变得对我有利,他们退回安全的车里,嚷嚷着说 要明天来宰了我。总算幸运,他们没再露面。 7 A few years and one divorce later, I headed for Los Angeles with my 3-year-old son, Jordan (the dogs had since departed). When I put him in preschool a few weeks later, the headmistress noted that I was a single parent and immediately warned me that there was a rapist in my new neighborhood. 几年后,我离了婚,带着 3 岁的儿子乔丹前往洛杉矶(那两条狗也死了) 。几个星期 后我送他去幼儿园,老师发现我是个单身母亲,马上提醒我,我刚搬入的居住区里有个强奸 犯。

8 I called the police, who confirmed this fact. The rapist followed no particular pattern. Sometimes he would be waiting in his victim's house; other times he would break in while the person was asleep. Although it was summer, I would carefully lock my windows at night and then lie there and sweat in fear. Thankfully, the rapist was caught, but not before he had attacked two more women. 我给警察局打了个电话, 他们证实了这一情况。 那个强奸犯没有什么特别的作案规律。 有时他在受害者家里等候,有时他趁人入睡时潜入。当时正是夏天,可夜间我还是谨慎地锁 住窗户,然后躺在床上,吓得浑身是汗。谢天谢地,那个强奸犯被逮捕了,可那是在他又强 暴了两名女子之后。 9 Soon the papers were telling yet another tale of senseless horror. Richard Bamirez, who became known as "The Walk-In Killer," spent months crippling and killing before he was caught. (2) His alleged crimes were so brutal, his desire to inflict pain so intense, that I began to question my beliefs about not taking human life under any circumstances. The thought of taking a human life disgusts me, but the idea of being someone's victim is worse. And how, I began to ask myself, do you talk pacifism to a murderer or a rapist? 不久, 报纸上又报道起另一个丧心病狂的恐怖人物的事来。 此人名叫理查德· 巴米里, 人称“入室杀手” ,被抓获前,一连几个月残害、杀死他人。据称他的犯罪行为非常野蛮, 他加害于人的欲望非常强烈,这使我开始对自己在任何情况下决不杀人的信念产生了怀疑。 取人性命的想法令我憎恨,但成为他人受害者的念头更可怕。我开始问自己,你怎么跟一个 杀人犯或强奸犯来谈论和平呢? 10 Finally, I decided that I would defend myself, even if it meant killing another person. (3) I realized that the one-sided pacifism I once so strongly had advocated could backfire on me and worse, on my son. Reluctantly, I concluded that I had to insure the best option for our survival. My choices: to count on a cop or to own a pistol. 最后,我决定要自我防卫,哪怕这意味着杀死他人。我意识到,自己曾积极提倡的一 厢情愿的和平主义会为害自身,更糟的是,会为害我的儿子。于是我极不情愿地决定:为了 我们的生存,我必须确保有一个最佳选择方案。我的选择:依靠警察,或拥有一支枪。 11 I called a man I had met a while ago who, I remembered, owned several guns. He told me he had a Smith & Wesson 38 Special for sale and recommended it, since it was small enough for me to handle yet had the necessary stopping power. 我给不久前认识的一个人打电话,我记得他有好几支枪。他告诉我,他有一支史密斯 -韦森 0.38 口径特种枪要出售,建议我买下,因为那支枪小巧好使,又有必要的威慑力。 12 I bought the gun. That same day, I got six rounds of special ammunition with plastic tips that explode on impact. These are not for target practice; these are for protection. 我买下了枪。在同一天,我弄到了 6 发包着塑料头、一撞击就崩碎的特别的子弹。这 些子弹不是打靶练习用的,是防身用的。 13 For about $50, I also picked up a metal safety box. Its push-button lock opens with a touch if you know the proper combination, possibly taking only a second or two longer than it does to reach into a night-table drawer. Now I knew that my son, Jordan, couldn't get his hands on it while

I still could. 花了大约 50 美元,我还买了个金属安全盒。如果知道正确的暗码,它的按钮式锁一 碰就开,大概比伸手去床头柜抽屉取他只慢一两秒钟。我知道儿子乔丹拿不到它,但我拿得 到。 14 When I brought the gun home, Jordan was fascinated by it. He kept picking it up, while I nervously watched. But knowledge, I believe, is still our greatest defense. And since I'm in favor of education for sex, AIDS and learning to drive, I couldn't draw the line at teaching my son about guns. 我把枪拿回家,乔丹兴奋得不得了。他不停地拿起来看,我紧张地瞧着。但我相信, 知识仍是我们最有力的防范手段。由于我主张对孩子进行性知识教育,艾滋病知识教育,以 及让孩子学会开车,我不能不赞成教儿子关于枪的知识。 15 Next, I took the pistol and my son to the target range. I rented a 22-caliber pistol for Jordan. (A .38 was too much gun for him to handle.) I was relieved when he put it down after 10 minutes -- he didn't like the feel of it. 随后,我携枪带儿子去射击场。我给乔丹租了一支 0.22 口径的手枪。 (0.38 口径的他 摆弄不了。 )10 分钟后他放下了枪,我不禁松了口气――他不喜欢握枪的感觉。 16 But that didn't prevent him from asking me if he should use the gun if someone broke into our house while I wasn't home. I shouted "no!" so loud, we both jumped. I explained that, if someone ever broke in, he's young and agile enough to leap out the window and run for his life. 但他并不因此不来问我,如果我不在家时有人闯入,他能不能用枪。我大喝一声“不 行! ” ,喊声响得把我们都吓得跳了起来。我解释说,要是真有人闯入,他人小,又灵活,完 全可以跳窗逃生。 17 Today he couldn't care less about the gun. Every so often, when were watching television in my room, I practice opening the safety box, and Jordan times me. I'm down to three seconds. I'll ask him what's the first thing you do when you handle a gun, and he looks at me like I'm stupid, saying: "Make sure it's unloaded. But I'm not to touch it or tell my friends about it." Jordan's already bored with it all. 如今他对那支枪早没了兴趣。 两人在我的卧室一起看电视时, 我常常练习开启安全盒, 乔丹替我计时。我已经快到只需要 3 秒钟了。我会问他,拿枪时第一件要做的事是什么,他 像看傻瓜似的看着我,说: “要看看子弹是不是没上膛。不过我是不会去碰它,也不会跟朋 友们说的。 ”乔丹对枪已经厌倦了。 18 I, on the other hand, look forward to Mondays -- "Ladies' Night" at the target range -when I get to shoot for free. I buy a box of bullets and some targets from the guy behind the counter, put on the protective eye and ear coverings and walk through the double doors to the firing lines. 而我则盼着每个星期一――射击场的“女士专场”――我可以免费练习射击。我在柜 台上买一盒子弹,几个靶子,戴上护眼罩和护耳罩,穿过双层门,来到射击区。 19 Once there, I load my gun, look down the sights of the barrel and adjust my aim. I fire six

rounds into the chest of a life-sized target hanging 25 feet away. As each bullet rips a hole through the figure drawn there, I realize I'm getting used to owning a gun and no longer feeling faint when I pick it up. The weight of it has become comfortable in my hand. And I am keeping my promise to practice. Too many people are killed by their own guns because they don't know how to use them. 到了那儿,我把子弹装上膛,看着枪管上的瞄准器调整瞄准方向。我对着 25 英尺开 外的真人大小的靶子的胸部连发 6 弹。随着一发发子弹洞穿对面画着的图像,我意识到,自 己正在习惯拥有枪支,拿枪时不再害怕了。枪的重量在手上已觉得挺舒服。我坚持练习。太 多的人由于不知如何使用枪而死在自己的枪下。 20 It took me years to decide to buy a gun, and then weeks before I could load it. It gave me nightmares. 我花了好多年才决定买枪, 又花了好几个星期才学会把子弹装上膛。 枪让我恶梦不断。 21 One night I dreamed I woke up when someone broke into our house. I grabbed my gun and sat waiting at the foot of my bed. Finally, I saw him turn the corner as he headed toward me. He was big and filled the hallway -- an impossible target to miss. I didn't want to shoot, but I knew my survival was on the line. (4) I wrapped my finger around the trigger and finally squeezed it, simultaneously accepting the intruder's death at my own hand and the relief of not being a victim. I woke up as soon as I decided to shoot. 一天夜晚,我梦见自己醒来,发现有人闯进屋子。我一把抓起枪,坐在床脚处等着。 最后我看着他拐过墙角朝我走来。他很高大,把过道都堵住了――根本不可能击不中。我不 想开枪,但我知道生死在此一搏。我手指扣住扳机,最后用力一扣,准备在亲手结束侵入者 性命的同时庆幸自己没有成为牺牲品。就在我决定开枪时我醒了。 22 I was tearfully relieved that it had only been a dream. 我如释重负,不由得热泪长流,幸亏这只是个梦。

23 I never have weighed the consequences of an act as strongly as I have that of buying a gun -- but, then again, I never have done anything with such deadly consequences. Most of my friends refuse even to discuss it with me. They believe that violence leads to violence. 我从来没有像在买枪一事上对某种行为的后果如此反复权衡――可是, 我也从来没做 过后果如此严重的事。我的大多数朋友甚至不肯跟我谈论这事。他们认为,暴力只能导致暴 力。 24 They're probably right. 他们或许是对的。

unit 4
Was Einstein a Space Alien? 1 Albert Einstein was exhausted. For the third night in a row, his baby son Hans, crying, kept the household awake until dawn. When Albert finally dozed off ... it was time to get up and go to wor k. He couldn't skip a day. He needed the job to support his young family. 1. 阿尔伯特.爱因斯坦精疲力竭。他幼小的儿子汉斯连续三个晚上哭闹不停,弄得全家人直 到天亮都无法入睡。阿尔伯特总算可以打个瞌睡时,已是他起床上班的时候了。他不能一天 不上班,他需要这份工作来养活组建不久的家庭。 2 Walking briskly to the Patent Office, where he was a "Technical Expert, Third Class," Albert w orried about his mother. She was getting older and frail, and she didn't approve of his marriage to Mileva. Relations were strained. Albert glanced at a passing shop window. His hair was a mess; he had forgotten to comb it again. 2. 阿尔伯特是专利局三等技术专家。在快步去专利局上班的路上,他为母亲忧心忡忡。母亲 年纪越来越大,身体虚弱。她不同意儿子与迈尔娃的婚事,婆媳关系紧张。阿尔伯特瞥了一 下路过的商店的橱窗,看见自己头发凌乱,他又忘了梳头了。 3 Work. Family. Making ends meet. Albert felt all the pressure and responsibility of any young h usband and father. 3. 工作, 家庭, 维持生计——阿尔伯特感受到了一位年轻丈夫和年轻父亲所要承担的全部压 力和责任。 To relax, he revolutionized physics. 他想放松下,却使物理学发生了突破性进展 4 In 1905, at the age of 26 and four years before he was able to get a job as a professor of physic s, Einstein published five of the most important papers in the history of science--all written in his " spare time." He proved that atoms and molecules existed. Before 1905, scientists weren't sure abo ut that. He argued that light came in little bits (later called "photons") and thus laid the foundation for quantum mechanics. He described his theory of special relativity: space and time were threads in a common fabric, he proposed, which could be bent, stretched and twisted. 4. 1905 年,在他被聘为物理学教授的前四年,26 岁的爱因斯坦发表了科学史上最重要论文 中的五篇——这些论文都是他在“业余时间”完成的。他证明了原子和分子的存在。 1905 年之前, 科学家们对此没有把握。 爱因斯坦论证说光以微粒形态出现 (后来被称为 “光子” ) , 这为量子力学奠定了基础。他把狭义相对论描写为:时空如同普通织物中的线,他提出,这 些线可以弯曲、拉长和交织在一起。 5 Oh, and by the way, E=mc2. 5. 对了,顺便提一下,E = mc2。 6 Before Einstein, the last scientist who had such a creative outburst was Sir Isaac Newton. It ha ppened in 1666 when Newton secluded himself at his mother's farm to avoid an outbreak of plagu e at Cambridge. With nothing better to do, he developed his Theory of Universal Gravitation. 6. 在爱因斯坦之前,最近一位迸发出如此创造性思想的科学家当数艾萨克牛顿

爵士。事情发生在 1666,为了躲避在剑桥爆发的瘟疫,牛顿去母亲的农场隐居。由于没有

什么更好的事可做,他便建立万有引力理论。 7 For centuries historians called 1666 Newton's “miracle year”. Now those words have a differe nt meaning: Einstein and 1905. The United Nations has declared 2005 "The World Year of Physics " to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's “miracle year.” 7. 几个世纪以来,历史学家称为 1666 牛顿的“奇迹年” 。现在这些话有不同的意义:爱因斯 坦和 1905。联合国已经宣布 2005 年“世界物理年“庆祝爱因斯坦“奇迹年”的 100 周年。 8 Modern pop culture paints Einstein as a bushy-haired superthinker. His ideas, we're told, were improbably far ahead of other scientists. He must have come from some other planet--maybe the s ame one Newton grew up on. 8. 现代流行文化把爱因斯坦绘画成一位长着蓬乱头发的超级思想家。 据说他的思想不可思议 地远远超过其他科学家。他一定是从其他星球来的——也许是牛顿长大的同一个星球。 9 "Einstein was no space alien," laughs Harvard University physicist and science historian Peter Galison. "He was a man of his time." All of his 1905 papers unraveled problems being worked on, with mixed success, by other scientists. "If Einstein hadn't been born, [those papers] would have b een written in some form, eventually, by others," Galison believes. 9. “爱因斯坦决不是外星人, ”哈佛大学物理学家、科学史家彼得加里森笑着说。 “他是他那 个时代的人。 ”他所有发表于 1905 年的论文解决了当时其他科学家正多多少少在解决的问 题, “如果没有爱因斯坦,其他科学家最终也会以某种形式撰写出这些论文来的”加里森相 信。 10 What's remarkable about 1905 is that a single person authored all five papers, plus the origina l, irreverent way Einstein came to his conclusions. 10. 1905 年不同寻常的是,爱因斯坦一个人撰写的五篇论文,而且他得出结论的方法既富原 创性又显得不合常规。 11 For example: the photoelectric effect. This was a puzzle in the early 1900s. When light hits a metal, like zinc, electrons fly off. This can happen only if light comes in little packets concentrated enough to knock an electron loose. A spread-out wave wouldn't do the photoelectric trick. 11. 例如:光电效应。这在 20 世纪初期的一道难题。当光照射到金属(如锌)上时,电子飞 速飞离电子表面,这种现象只有当光的粒子集聚的程度足以把电子击撞松动的时候才会发 生。漫延波不会产生光电效应。 12 The solution seems simple--light is particulate. Indeed, this is the solution Einstein proposed i n 1905 and won the Nobel Prize for in 1921. Other physicists like Max Planck (working on a relat ed problem: blackbody radiation), more senior and experienced than Einstein, were closing in on t he answer, but Einstein got there first. Why? 12. 答案似乎很简单——光是粒子。事实上,这是爱因斯坦 1905 年提出的解答,并因此于 1921 年获得诺贝尔奖。其他物理学家们,比如比爱因斯坦资历更深、经验更丰富的麦克斯 普兰克(从事研究相关的问题:黑体辐射) ,其研究正接近 该问题的答案,但爱因斯坦捷足先登。为什么? It's a question of authority. 这是对权威的看法问题 13 "In Einstein's day, if you tried to say that light was made of particles, you found yourself disa greeing with physicist James Clerk Maxwell. Nobody wanted to do that," says Galison. Maxwell's equations were enormously successful, unifying the physics of electricity, magnetism and optics. Maxwell had proved beyond any doubt that light was an electromagnetic wave. Maxwell was an A uthority Figure.

13. “在爱因斯坦的时代,如果你试图说光由粒子组成,你就会发现自己与物理学家杰姆斯. 克拉克.马克斯威尔持不同观点。没有人想那么做, ”加里森说道。马克斯威尔的方程式把物 理学中的电学、磁学和光学统一起来,获得了巨大的成功。麦克斯威尔毫无疑问地证明了光 是电磁波。他可是权威人物。 14 Einstein didn't give a fig for authority. He didn't resist being told what to do, not so much, but he hated being told what was true. Even as a child he was constantly doubting and questioning. " Your mere presence here undermines the class's respect for me," spat his 7th grade teacher, Dr. Jos eph Degenhart. (Degenhart also predicted that Einstein "would never get anywhere in life.") This c haracter flaw was to be a key ingredient in Einstein's discoveries. 14. 爱因斯坦豪不在乎权威。他不太反对别人要求他做什么,但是他不喜欢别人告诉他什么 是正确的。 即使在小时候他也不停地质疑和问问题。 “你呆在这里损害了全班学生对我尊敬, ” 他第七年级的老师约瑟夫狄根哈特博士愤怒地说。 (狄根哈特还预言爱因斯坦“永远不会有 出息” )这一性格缺陷成为日后爱因斯坦作出种种发现的主要因素。 15 "In 1905," notes Galison, "Einstein had just received his Ph.D. He wasn't beholden to a thesis advisor or any other authority figure." His mind was free to roam accordingly. 15. “在 1905 年, ”加里森着重指出, “爱因斯坦刚刚获得博士学位,他不感激于论文导师或 任何其他权威人士。 ”因此,他的思想在自由漫游。 16 In retrospect, Maxwell was right. Light is a wave. But Einstein was right, too. Light is a parti cle. This bizarre duality baffles Physics 101 students today just as it baffled Einstein in 1905. How can light be both? Einstein had no idea. 16. 回想起来,麦克斯威尔是正确的。光是一种波。但爱因斯坦也是对的。光是粒子。这种 异乎寻常的二象性使今天选修无力 101 课程的同学们感到困惑,就像在 1905 年使爱因斯坦 感到困惑一样。光怎么可能既是波又是粒子呢?爱因斯坦无法理解。 17 That didn't slow him down. Disdaining caution, Einstein adopted the intuitive leap as a basic tool. "I believe in intuition and inspiration," he wrote in 1931. "At times I feel certain I am right w hile not knowing the reason." 17. 困惑并没有使爱因斯坦放慢探究的脚步。爱因斯坦不屑谨小慎微,他采用直觉跳跃思维 作为基本工具。 “我相信直觉和灵感, ”他在 1931 年写道。 “有时尽管不知道原因,但是我肯 定我是对的。 18 Although Einstein's five papers were published in a single year, he had been thinking about p hysics, deeply, since childhood. "Science was dinner-table conversation in the Einstein household," explains Galison. Albert's father Hermann and uncle Jako b ran a German company making such things as dynamos, arc lamps, light bulbs and telephones. T his was high-tech at the turn of the century, "like a Silicon Valley company would be today," notes Galison. "Albert's interest in science and technology came naturally." 18. 虽说爱因斯坦在短短的一年内发表了五篇论文,其实他童年时代就一直深入地思考物理 的问题。 “科学是爱因斯坦在餐桌上聊天的话题。 ”加里森解释道。爱因斯坦的父亲赫尔曼和 叔叔雅各布经营一家德国公司,制造发电机,电弧灯,灯泡、电话等诸如此类的产品。这是 (20)世纪之初属于高科技, “像今天的硅谷公司, ”加里森着重提到。 “艾伯特对科学技术 与生俱来怀有兴趣。 ” 19 Einstein's parents sometimes took Albert to parties. No babysitter was required: Albert sat on the couch, totally absorbed, quietly doing math problems while others danced around him. Pencil and paper were Albert's GameBoy! 19. 爱因斯坦的父母有时会带儿子参加聚会。她们不常请人看孩子:当其他人在他周围跳舞

时,阿尔伯特坐在沙发上,全神贯注,静静地做数学题。笔和纸是阿尔伯特的玩具! 20 He had impressive powers of concentration. Einstein's sister, Maja, recalled "...even when the re was a lot of noise, he could lie down on the sofa, pick up a pen and paper, precariously balance an inkwell on the backrest and engross himself in a problem so much that the background noise sti mulated rather than disturbed him." 20. 他有极强的集中思想的能力。 爱因斯坦的妹妹玛雅, 回 忆说: “??即使周围非常吵闹,他也能躺在沙发上,拿起纸和笔,悠悠地把墨水池放在一个 靠背上,专心致志得解题,北京声音不但没有打扰他,反而激励他。 ” 21 Einstein was clearly intelligent, but not outlandishly more so than his peers. "I have no specia l talents," he claimed, "I am only passionately curious." And again: "The contrast between the pop ular assessment of my powers ... and the reality is simply grotesque." Einstein credited his discove ries to imagination and pesky questioning more so than orthodox intelligence. 21. 爱因斯坦显然很聪明,但不比他的同龄人超出多少。 “我没有什么特别的才能, ”他说, “只是我的好奇心非常强烈。 ”还有: “大众对我能力的评估?和现实之间的差异简直大得荒 唐。 ”爱因斯坦把他的发现更多地归功于想象力和不断提问而不是普通所谓的智慧。 22 Later in life, it should be remembered, he struggled mightily to produce a unified field theory, combining gravity with other forces of nature. He failed. Einstein's brainpower was not limitless. 22.应该记住的是,爱因斯坦在晚年竭尽全力想象提出统一场论,把万有引力和自然界中其 他的力结合起来。但他失败了。爱因斯坦的智力不是无限的。 23 Neither was Einstein's brain. It was removed without permission by Dr. Thomas Harvey in 19 55 when Einstein died. He probably expected to find something extraordinary:Einstein's mother P auline had famously worried that baby Einstein's head was lopsided. (Einstein's grandmother had a different concern: "Much too fat!") But Einstein's brain looked much like any other, gray, crinkly, and, if anything, a trifle smaller than average.

23. 爱因斯坦的大脑也是如此。 他 1955 年去世的时候, 托马斯哈维医生在未经许可的情况下 解剖了他的大脑。 也许他期盼发现一些惊人的东西。 但是爱因斯坦死的大脑看起来和其他人 的大脑很相似,灰色,波状的。如果非要说什么不同,那就是他的大脑比正常人的小一点。

轶事爱因斯坦 废纸篓他的错误时,艾伯特爱因斯坦抵达美国,在 54 岁?驶入纽约港的远洋班轮 westernland 十月 171933,官方欢迎委员会正在等着他。爱因斯坦和他的随行人员,

然而,不知去向。亚伯拉罕弗莱克斯纳,导演在普林斯顿高等研究院,新泽西,被 屏蔽他的名人教授从宣传。所以他派拖船精神伟人从 westernland 尽快通过检疫。他 的头发拨出一个宽边黑帽,爱因斯坦偷偷地到拖船上岸,这使他和他的党下曼哈顿, 在车接送到普林斯顿。 ”爱因斯坦博士是想求得和平和安静, ”弗莱克斯纳告诉记者。 诺贝尔奖得主在 1921 他对理论物理学,爱因斯坦得到一个办公室在学院。他问他需 要什么设备。 ”一个写字台或桌子,椅子,纸和铅笔, ”他回答说。 “哦,和一个大篓, 所以我可以扔掉我所有的错误。 ”他和埃尔莎,他的妻子,租了一个房子和定居生活 在普林斯顿。他喜欢美国的事实,尽管其不平等的财富和种族不公正,更多的是一 个精英比欧洲。 ”让新来的 致力于这个国家的民主特质的人, ”他后来奇迹。 ”没有人谦卑自己,在另一个人。 ” 不是一个爱因斯坦爱因斯坦,然而,没有爱因斯坦的时候他还是一个孩子的成长。 在慕尼黑,德国,第一个孩子的赫尔曼和保罗爱因斯坦,他在缓慢的学习说话。 “我 的父母非常担心, ”他回忆道, “他们找医生。 ”当他开始使用的话 2 岁之后,他制定 了一个怪癖,促使他的保姆给他迟钝的人。 ”他所说的每一句,无论多么常规, ”回 忆起他的妹妹,玛雅, ”他轻声地反复,动动嘴唇。 ”他缓慢发展的结合是一个厚脸 皮的叛逆的权威,从而导致一个德国校长把他包装。另一个说,爱因斯坦不会多。 “当我问自己这是怎么发生的,我发现了相对论,它似乎躺在下面的情况, ”爱因斯 坦后来解释说。 “普通成人不会困扰他的头问题的空间和时间。这些都是他认为作为 一个孩子。但我发展很慢,我开始思考的空间和时间,当我已经长大了。我更深入 探讨的问题不是一个普通的孩子都有一个快乐的科学。 ”鼓励他的和蔼的父亲,谁经 营家族生意,和他热爱音乐的母亲,爱因斯坦花了几个小时的工作上的难题和建筑 塔的玩具。 ”的毅力和韧性是他性格中的一部分, ”他的妹妹说。一次,爱因斯坦生 病在床上作为一个孩子,他的父亲带他一个指南针。爱因斯坦后来想起这么激动, 当他检查了它的神秘力量,他颤抖着越来越冷。磁针的表现好像受到一个隐藏的力 场,而不是通过机械的方法接触或接触。 ”深深的藏得背后的东西, ”他说。他对磁 域,重力,惯性和光束。他保留的能力,将两个念头的同时,感到困惑时,冲突和 喜悦时,他看到一个潜在的团结。 ”像你我这样的人是永远不会老的, ”他写道,一 个朋友多年以后我们从来没有停止过。 ”都是好奇的孩童面前的伟大神秘的,我们是 天生的。 ”普遍的看法相反,爱因斯坦擅长数学。在 13 岁的时候,他已经有了一个 偏爱解决复杂问题的应用数学,他的妹妹回忆说。一个叔叔,雅各布爱因斯坦,工 程师,把他介绍给欢乐的代数,称它是“快乐的科学, ”当爱因斯坦取得了胜利,他 “很高兴不已。 ”他从阅读科普书籍,这表明他“圣经不可能是真的, ”爱因斯坦制 定了一个抵制一切形式的教条。他写了 1901, “一个愚蠢的信仰权威是真理最大的 敌人。 ” 一个骄傲的美国在 15 岁时,爱因斯坦离开德国去了意大利北部,在那里他的父母迁 往自己的业务,并在 16,他写了他的第一篇文章在理论物理。爱因斯坦发现了相对 论,他毕业于苏黎世理工大学 1900 当他 21,涉及的直觉知识以及个人的经验。他 发展的理论,从 1905 开始,后一个工作在瑞士专利局。但他的理论并不完全接受, 直到 1919, 当观测在一次日食证实他的预测多少太阳的引力弯曲的光束。 在年龄 40, 1919,爱因斯坦突然被世界著名。他也结婚的埃尔莎和他的妻子,是父亲的儿子从 他的第一次婚姻。1921 的春天,他的名声大爆炸导致盛大月访问美国,在那里他收 到热烈欢迎,他会唤起大众疯狂所到之处。世界从未见过这样一个科学名人明星。 爱因斯坦热爱美国,欣赏其连发繁荣的结果,自由和个人主义。在 3 月 1933,希特 勒在德国,爱因斯坦意识到他可以不再生活在欧洲的。秋天,他定居在普林斯顿,

和 1940,他是美国公民,自豪地称自己美国。自然界的和谐和数学 他的第一个万圣节生活在美国,爱因斯坦解除了一些捣蛋的小夜曲惊讶他们在门口 和小提琴。在圣诞节,当成员的本地教会来唱圣诞颂歌,他走到外面,借了一把小 提琴,愉快地陪他们。爱因斯坦很快获得的图像,它长到附近的一个传说,是一个 亲切的教授,分散在次但始终甜,谁很少梳头穿袜子。 ”我已经到了一岁时,如果有 人告诉我穿袜子,我不去, ”他告诉当地的一些孩子。他曾经帮助一个 15 岁的学生, 亨利·罗索,以新闻类。我们的老师提供了一个高档的人得分采访的科学家,所以 我们出现在爱因斯坦的家,却被拒绝在门外。送牛奶的人给了他一个提示:爱因斯 坦走了一段路每早晨 9: 30.rosso 溜出学校,同他搭讪。但学生,突然所有的困惑, 不知道问什么。所以爱因斯坦提出的问题,关于数学的。 ”我发现大自然是建造在一 个美妙的方式,我们的任务就是找到我们的[它]的数学结构, ”爱因斯坦解释了自己 的教育。 ”它是一种信念,帮助我通过我的整个生活。 ”访谈获得亨利罗索 A。

unit 5 Writing Three Thank-You Letters

Alex Haley served in the Coast Guard during World War ll. On an especially lonely day to be at sea -- Thanksgiving Day -- he began to give serious thought to a holiday that has become, for many Americans, a day of overeating and watching endless games of football. Haley decided to celebrate the true meaning of Thanksgiving by writing three very special letters. 亚历克斯·黑利二战时在海岸警卫队服役。出海在外,时逢一个倍感孤寂的日子―― 感恩节, 他开始认真思考起这一节日的意义。 对许多美国人而言, 这个节日已成为大吃大喝、 没完没了地看橄榄球比赛的日子。 黑利决定写三封不同寻常的信, 以此来纪念感恩节的真正 意义。

Writing Three Thank-You Letters
Alex Haley 1 It was 1943, during World War II, and I was a young U. S. coastguardsman. My ship, the USS Murzim, had been under way for several days. Most of her holds contained thousands of cartons of canned or dried foods. The other holds were loaded with five-hundred-pound bombs packed delicately in padded racks. Our destination was a big base on the island of Tulagi in the South Pacific. 写三封感谢信 亚利克斯·黑利 那是在二战期间的 1943 年,我是个年轻的美国海岸警卫队队员。我们的船,美国军 舰军市一号已出海多日。 多数船舱装着成千上万箱罐装或风干的食品。 其余的船舱装着不少 五百磅重的炸弹, 都小心翼翼地放在垫过的架子上。 我们的目的地是南太平洋图拉吉岛上一 个规模很大的基地。 2 I was one of the Murzim's several cooks and, quite the same as for folk ashore, this

Thanksgiving morning had seen us busily preparing a traditional dinner featuring roast turkey. 我是军市一号上的一个厨师,跟岸上的人一样,那个感恩节的上午,我们忙着在准备 一道以烤火鸡为主的传统菜肴。 3 Well, as any cook knows, it's a lot of hard work to cook and serve a big meal, and clean up and put everything away. But finally, around sundown, we finished at last. 当厨师的都知道,要烹制一顿大餐,摆上桌,再刷洗、收拾干净,是件辛苦的事。不 过,等到太阳快下山时,我们总算全都收拾停当了。 4 I decided first to go out on the Murzim's afterdeck for a breath of open air. I made my way out there, breathing in great, deep draughts while walking slowly about, still wearing my white cook's hat. 我想先去后甲板透透气。我信步走去,一边深深呼吸着空气,一边慢慢地踱着步,头 上仍戴着那顶白色的厨师帽。 5 I got to thinking about Thanksgiving, of the Pilgrims, Indians, wild turkeys, pumpkins, corn on the cob, and the rest. 我开始思索起感恩节这个节日来, 想着清教徒前辈移民、 印第 安人、野火鸡、南瓜、玉米棒等等。 6 Yet my mind seemed to be in quest of something else -- some way that I could personally apply to the close of Thanksgiving. It must have taken me a half hour to sense that maybe some key to an answer could result from reversing the word "Thanksgiving" -- at least that suggested a verbal direction, "Giving thanks." 可我脑子里似乎还在搜索着别的事什么――某种我能够赋予这一节日以个人意义的 方式。 大概过了半个小时左右我才意识到, 问题的关键也许在于把 Thanksgiving 这个字前后 颠倒一下――那样一来至少文字好懂了:Giving thanks。 7 Giving thanks -- as in praying, thanking God, I thought. Yes, of course. Certainly. 表达谢意――就如在祈祷时感谢上帝那样,我暗想。对啊,是这样,当然是这样。 Yet my mind continued turning the idea over. 可我脑子里仍一直盘桓着这事。

8

9 After a while, like a dawn's brightening, a further answer did come -- that there were people to thank, people who had done so much for me that I could never possibly repay them. The embarrassing truth was I'd always just accepted what they'd done, taken all of it for granted. Not one time had I ever bothered to express to any of them so much as a simple, sincere "Thank you." 过了片刻,如同晨曦初现,一个更清晰的念头终于涌现脑际――要感谢他人,那些赐 我以诸多恩惠,我根本无以回报的人们。令我深感不安的实际情形是,我向来对他们所做的 一切受之泰然, 认为是理所应当。 我一次也没想过要对他们中的任何一位真心诚意地说一句 简单的谢谢。 10 At least seven people had been particularly and lastingly helpful to me. I realized, swallowing hard, that about half of them had since died -- so they were forever beyond any

possible expression of gratitude from me. The more I thought about it, the more ashamed I became. Then I pictured the three who were still alive and, within minutes, I was down in my cabin. 至少有七个人对我有过不同寻常、影响深远的帮助。令人难过的是,我意识到,他们 中有一半已经过世了――因此他们永远也无法接受我的谢意了。 我越想越感到羞愧。 最后我 想到了仍健在的三位,几分钟后,我就回到了自己的舱房。 11 Sitting at a table with writing paper and memories of things each had done, I tried composing genuine statements of heartfelt appreciation and gratitude to my dad, Simon A. Haley, a professor at the old Agricultural Mechanical Normal College in Pine Bluff, Arkansas; to my grandma, Cynthia Palmer, back in our little hometown of Henning, Tennessee; and to the Rev. Lonual Nelson, my grammar school principal, retired and living in Ripley, six miles north of Henning. 我坐在摊着信纸的桌旁, 回想着他们各自对我所做的一切, 试图用真挚的文字表达我 对他们的由衷的感激之情:父亲西蒙·A·黑利,阿肯色州派因布拉夫那所古老的农业机械 师范学院的教授;住在田纳西州小镇亨宁老家的外祖母辛西娅·帕尔默;以及我的文法学校 校长,退休后住在亨宁以北 6 英里处的里普利的洛纽尔·纳尔逊牧师。 12 The texts of my letters began something like, "Here, this Thanksgiving at sea, I find my thoughts upon how much you have done for me, but I have never stopped and said to you how much I feel the need to thank you -- " And briefly I recalled for each of them specific acts performed on my behalf. 我的信是这样开头的: “出海在外度过的这个感恩节,令我回想起您为我做了那么多 事, 但我从来没有对您说过自己是多么想感谢您――” 我简短回忆了各位为我所做的具体事 例。 13 For instance, something uppermost about my father was how he had impressed upon me from boyhood to love books and reading. In fact, this graduated into a family habit of after-dinner quizzes at the table about books read most recently and new words learned. My love of books never diminished and later led me toward writing books myself. So many times I have felt a sadness when exposed to modern children so immersed in the electronic media that they have little or no awareness of the marvelous world to be discovered in books. 例如,我父亲的最不同寻常之处在于,从我童年时代起,他就让我深深意识到要热爱 书籍、热爱阅读。事实上,这一爱好渐渐变成一种家庭习惯,晚饭后大家围在餐桌旁互相考 查近日所读的书以及新学的单词。我对书籍的热爱从未减弱,日后还引导我自己撰文著书。 多少次,当我看到如今的孩子们如此沉迷于电子媒体时,我不由深感悲哀,他们很少,或者 根本不了解书中所能发现的神奇世界。 14 I reminded the Reverend Nelson how each morning he would open our little country town's grammar school with a prayer over his assembled students. I told him that whatever positive things I had done since had been influenced at least in part by his morning school prayers. 我跟纳尔逊牧师提及他如何每天清晨和集合在一起的学生做祷告, 以此开始乡村小学 的一天。我告诉他,我后来所做的任何有意义的事,都至少部分地是受了他那些学校晨祷的 影响。

15 In the letter to my grandmother, I reminded her of a dozen ways she used to teach me how to tell the truth, to share, and to be forgiving and considerate of others. I thanked her for the years of eating her good cooking, the equal of which I had not found since. Finally, I thanked her simply for having sprinkled my life with stardust. 在给外祖母的信中, 我谈到了她用了种种方式教我讲真话, 教我与人分享, 教我宽恕、 体谅他人。 我感谢她多年来让我吃到她烧的美味菜肴, 离开她后我从来没吃过那么可口的菜 肴。最后,我感谢她,因为她在我的生命中撒下美妙的遐想。 16 Before I slept, my three letters went into our ship's office mail sack. They got mailed when we reached Tulagi Island. 睡觉前,我的这三封信都送进了船上的邮袋。我们抵达图拉吉岛后都寄了出去。 17 We unloaded cargo, reloaded with something else, then again we put to sea in the routine familiar to us, and as the days became weeks, my little personal experience receded. Sometimes, when we were at sea, a mail ship would rendezvous and bring us mail from home, which, of course, we accorded topmost priority. 我们卸了货,又装了其它物品,随后我们按熟悉的常规,再次出海。 一天又一天, 一星期又一星期,我个人的经历渐渐淡忘。我们在海上航行时,有时会与邮船会合,邮船会 带给我们家信,当然这是我们视为最紧要的事情。 18 Every time the ship's loudspeaker rasped, "Attention! Mail call!" two hundred-odd shipmates came pounding up on deck and clustered about the two seamen, standing by those precious bulging gray sacks. They were alternately pulling out fistfuls of letters and barking successive names of sailors who were, in turn, shouting back "Here! Here!" amid the pushing. 每当船上的喇叭响起: “大伙听好!邮件点名! ”200 名左右的水兵就会冲上甲板,围 聚在那两个站在宝贵的鼓鼓囊囊的灰色邮袋旁的水手周围。 两人轮流取出一把信, 大声念收 信水手的名字,叫到的人从人群当中挤出,一边应道: “来了,来了! ” 19 One "mail call" brought me responses from Grandma, Dad, and the Reverend Nelson -and my reading of their letters left me not only astonished but more humbled than before. 一次“邮件点名”带给我外祖母,爸爸,以及纳尔逊牧师的回信――我读了信,既震 惊又深感卑微。 20 Rather than saying they would forgive that I hadn't previously thanked them, instead, for Pete's sake, they were thanking me -- for having remembered, for having considered they had done anything so exceptional. 他们没有说他们原谅我以前不曾感谢他们,相反,他们向我致谢,天哪,就因为我记 得,就因为我认为他们做了不同寻常的事。 21 Always the college professor, my dad had carefully avoided anything he considered too sentimental, so I knew how moved he was to write me that, after having helped educate many young people, he now felt that his best results included his own son. 身为大学教授的爸爸向来特别留意不使用任何过于感情化的文字,因此, 当他对我 写道,在教了许许多多的年轻人之后,他认为自己最优秀的学生当中也包括自己的儿子时,

我知道他是多么地感动。 22 The Reverend Nelson wrote that his decades as a "simple, old-fashioned principal" had ended with schools undergoing such swift changes that he had retired in self-doubt. "I heard more of what I had done wrong than what I did right," he said, adding that my letter had brought him welcome reassurance that his career had been appreciated. 纳尔逊牧师写道, 他那平凡的传统校长的岁月随着学校里发生的如此迅猛的变化而结 束,他怀着自我怀疑的心态退了休。 “说我做得不对的远远多于说我做得对的, ” 他写道, 接着说我的信给他带来了振奋人心的信心:自己的校长生涯还是有其价值的。 23 A glance at Grandma's familiar handwriting brought back in a flash memories of standing alongside her white rocking chair, watching her "settin' down" some letter to relatives. Character by character, Grandma would slowly accomplish one word, then the next, so that a finished page would consume hours. I wept over the page representing my Grandma's recent hours invested in expressing her loving gratefulness to me -- whom she used to diaper! 一看到外祖母那熟悉的笔迹, 我顿时回想起往日站在她的白色摇椅旁看她给亲戚写信 的情景。外祖母一个字母一个字母地慢慢拼出一个词,接着是下一个词,因此写满一页要花 上几个小时。 捧着外祖母最近花费不少工夫对我表达了充满慈爱的谢意, 我禁不住流泪―― 从前是她给我换尿布的呀。 24 Much later, retired from the Coast Guard and trying to make a living as a writer, I never forgot how those three "thank you" letters gave me an insight into how most human beings go about longing in secret for more of their fellows to express appreciation for their efforts. 许多年后,我从海岸警卫队退役,试着靠写作为生,我一直不曾忘记那三封“感谢” 信是如何使我认识到,大凡人都暗自期望着有更多的人对自己的努力表达谢意。 25 Now, approaching another Thanksgiving, I have asked myself what will I wish for all who are reading this, for our nation, indeed for our whole world -- since, quoting a good and wise friend of mine, "In the end we are mightily and merely people, each with similar needs." First, I wish for us, of course, the simple common sense to achieve world peace, that being paramount for the very survival of our kind. 现在,感恩节又将来临,我自问,对此文的读者,对我们的祖国,事实上对全世界, 我有什么祝愿,因为,用一位善良而且又有智慧的朋友的话来说, “我们究其实都是十分相 像的凡人,有着相似的需求。 ”当然,我首先祝愿大家记住这一简单的常识:实现世界和平, 这对我们自身的存亡至关重要。 26 And there is something else I wish -- so strongly that I have had this line printed across the bottom of all my stationery: "Find the good -- and praise it." 此外我还有别的祝愿――这一祝愿是如此强烈,我将这句话印在我所有的信笺底部: “发现并褒扬各种美好的事物。 ” Thanksgiving, like Spring Festival, brings families back together from across the country. Waiting for her children to arrive, Ellen Goodman reflects on the changing relationship between parents and children as they grow up and leave home, often to settle far away.

如同春节那样,散居各处的美国人到感恩节就回家团聚。埃伦·古德曼在等待着子女 回家的同时,思索着当子女长大离家,常常在远方定居之后,父母与子女关系的不断变化。

找不到 b 了

unit 6 The Last Leaf

When Johnsy fell seriously ill, she seemed to lose the will to hang on to life. The doctor held out little hope for her. Her friends seemed helpless. Was there nothing to be done? 约翰西病情严重,她似乎失去了活下去的意志。医生对她不抱什么希望。朋友们看来 也爱莫能助。难道真的就无可奈何了吗?

The Last Leaf
O. Henry 1 At the top of a three-story brick building, Sue and Johnsy had their studio. "Johnsy" was familiar for Joanna. One was from Maine; the other from California. They had met at a cafe on Eighth Street and found their tastes in art, chicory salad and bishop sleeves so much in tune that the joint studio resulted. 最后一片叶子 欧·亨利 在一幢三层砖楼的顶层,苏和约翰西辟了个画室。 “约翰西”是乔安娜的昵称。她们 一位来自缅因州,一位来自加利福尼亚。两人相遇在第八大街的一个咖啡馆,发现各自在艺 术品味、菊苣色拉,以及灯笼袖等方面趣味相投,于是就有了这个两人画室。 2 That was in May. In November a cold, unseen stranger, whom the doctors called Pneumonia, stalked about the district, touching one here and there with his icy fingers. Johnsy was among his victims. She lay, scarcely moving on her bed, looking through the small window at the blank side of the next brick house. 那是 5 月里的事。 到了 11 月, 一个医生称之为肺炎的阴森的隐形客闯入了这一地区, 用它冰冷的手指东碰西触。约翰西也为其所害。她病倒了,躺在床上几乎一动不动,只能隔 着小窗望着隔壁砖房那单调沉闷的侧墙。 3 One morning the busy doctor invited Sue into the hallway with a bushy, gray eyebrow. 一天上午,忙碌的医生扬了扬灰白的浓眉,示意苏来到过道。

4 "She has one chance in ten," he said. "And that chance is for her to want to live. Your little lady has made up her mind that she's not going to get well. Has she anything on her mind? “她只有一成希望, ”他说。 “那还得看她自己是不是想活下去。你这位女朋友已经下 决心不想好了。她有什么心事吗?” 5 "She -- she wanted to paint the Bay of Naples some day," said Sue. 一天能去画那不勒斯湾, ”苏说。 “她――她想有

6 "Paint? -- bosh! Has she anything on her mind worth thinking about twice -- a man, for instance?" “画画?――得了。她有没有别的事值得她留恋的――比如说,一个男人?” 7 "A man?" said Sue. "Is a man worth -- but, no, doctor; there is nothing of the kind." “男人?”苏说。 “难道一个男人就值得――可是, 她没有啊, 大夫, 没有这码子事。 ”

8 "Well," said the doctor. "I will do all that science can accomplish. But whenever my patient begins to count the carriages in her funeral procession I subtract 50 per cent from the curative power of medicines." After the doctor had gone Sue went into the workroom and cried. Then she marched into Johnsy's room with her drawing board, whistling a merry tune. “好吧, ”大夫说。 “我会尽一切努力,只要是科学能做到的。可是,但凡病人开始计 算她出殡的行列里有几辆马车的时候,我就要把医药的疗效减去一半。 ”大夫走后,苏去工 作室哭了一场。随后她携着画板大步走进约翰西的房间,口里吹着轻快的口哨。 9 Johnsy lay, scarcely making a movement under the bedclothes, with her face toward the window. She was looking out and counting -- counting backward. 约翰西躺在被子下几乎一动不动,脸朝着窗。她望着窗外,数着数――倒数着数! 10 "Twelve," she said, and a little later "eleven"; and then "ten," and "nine"; and then "eight" and "seven," almost together. “12, ”她数道,过了一会儿“11” ,接着数“10”和“9” ;再数“8”和“7” ,几乎 一口同时数下来。 11 Sue looked out of the window. What was there to count? There was only a bare, dreary yard to be seen, and the blank side of the brick house twenty feet away. An old, old ivy vine climbed half way up the brick wall. The cold breath of autumn had blown away its leaves, leaving it almost bare. 苏朝窗外望去。外面有什么好数的呢?外面只看到一个空荡荡的沉闷的院子,还有 20 英尺开外那砖房的侧墙,上面什么也没有。一棵古老的常青藤爬到半墙高。萧瑟秋风吹 落了枝叶,藤上几乎光秃秃的。 12 "Six," said Johnsy, in almost a whisper. "They're falling faster now. Three days ago there

were almost a hundred. It made my head ache to count them. But now it's easy. There goes another one. There are only five left now." “6” ,约翰西数着,声音几乎听不出来。 “现在叶子掉落得快多了。三天前差不多还 有 100 片。数得我头都疼。可现在容易了。又掉了一片。这下子只剩 5 片了。 ” 13 "Five what, dear? " “5 片什么,亲爱的?”

14 "Leaves. On the ivy vine. When the last one falls I must go, too. I've known that for three days. Didn't the doctor tell you?" “叶子。常青藤上的叶子。等最后一片叶子掉了,我也就得走了。三天前我就知道会 这样。大夫没跟你说吗?” 15 "Oh, I never heard of such nonsense. What have old ivy leaves to do with your getting well? Don't be so silly. Why, the doctor told me this morning that your chances for getting well real soon were ten to one! Try to take some soup now, and let Sudie go and buy port wine for her sick child." “噢, 我从没听说过这种胡说八道。 常青藤叶子跟你病好不好有什么关系?别这么傻。 对了,大夫上午跟我说,你的病十有八九就快好了。快喝些汤,让苏迪给她生病的孩子去买 些波尔图葡萄酒来。 ” 16 "You needn't get any more wine," said Johnsy, keeping her eyes fixed out the window. "There goes another. No, I don't want any soup. That leaves just four. I want to see the last one fall before it gets dark. Then I'll go, too. I'm tired of waiting. I'm tired of thinking. I want to turn loose my hold on everything, and go sailing down, down, just like one of those poor, tired leaves." “你不用再去买酒了, ”约翰西说道,两眼一直盯着窗外。 “又掉了一片。不,我不想 喝汤。这一下只剩下 4 片了。我要在天黑前看到最后一片叶子掉落。那时我也就跟着走了。 我都等腻了。也想腻了。我只想撇开一切, 飘然而去,就像那边一片可怜的疲倦的叶子。 ” 17 "Try to sleep," said Sue. "I must call Behrman up to be my model for the old miner. I'll not be gone a minute." “快睡吧, ”苏说。 “我得叫贝尔曼上楼来给我当老矿工模特儿。我去去就来。 ” 18 Old Behrman was a painter who lived on the ground floor beneath them. He was past sixty and had a long white beard curling down over his chest. Despite looking the part, Behrman was a failure in art. For forty years he had been always about to paint a masterpiece, but had never yet begun it. He earned a little by serving as a model to those young artists who could not pay the price of a professional. He drank gin to excess, and still talked of his coming masterpiece. For the rest he was a fierce little old man, who mocked terribly at softness in any one, and who regarded himself as guard dog to the two young artists in the studio above. 老贝尔曼是住在两人楼下底层的一个画家。 他已年过六旬, 银白色蜷曲的长髯披挂胸 前。贝尔曼看上去挺像艺术家,但在艺术上却没有什么成就。40 年来他一直想创作一幅传 世之作,却始终没能动手。他给那些请不起职业模特的青年画家当模特挣点小钱。他没节制 地喝酒,谈论着他那即将问世的不朽之作。要说其他方面,他是个好斗的小老头,要是谁表

现出一点软弱,他便大肆嘲笑,并把自己看成是楼上画室里两位年轻艺术家的看护人。

19 Sue found Behrman smelling strongly of gin in his dimly lighted studio below. In one corner was a blank canvas on an easel that had been waiting there for twenty-five years to receive the first line of the masterpiece. She told him of Johnsy's fancy, and how she feared she would, indeed, light and fragile as a leaf herself, float away, when her slight hold upon the world grew weaker. Old Behrman, with his red eyes plainly streaming, shouted his contempt for such foolish imaginings. 苏在楼下光线暗淡的画室里找到了贝尔曼, 他满身酒味刺鼻。 屋子一角的画架上支着 一张从未落过笔的画布,在那儿搁了 25 年,等着一幅杰作的起笔。苏把约翰西的怪念头跟 他说了, 并说约翰西本身就像一片叶子又瘦又弱, 她害怕要是她那本已脆弱的生存意志再软 下去的话,真的会凋零飘落。老贝尔曼双眼通红,显然是泪涟涟的,他大声叫嚷着说他蔑视 这种傻念头。

20 "What!" he cried. "Are there people in the world foolish enough to die because leafs drop off from a vine? I have never heard of such a thing. Why do you allow such silly ideas to come into that head of hers? God! This is not a place in which one so good as Miss Johnsy should lie sick. Some day I will paint a masterpiece, and we shall all go away. Yes." “什么! ”他嚷道。 “世界上竟然有这么愚蠢的人,因为树叶从藤上掉落就要去死?我 听都没听说过这等事。 你怎么让这种傻念头钻到她那个怪脑袋里?天哪! 这不是一个像约翰 西小姐这样的好姑娘躺倒生病的地方。有朝一日我要画一幅巨作,那时候我们就离开这里。 真的。 ” 21 Johnsy was sleeping when they went upstairs. Sue pulled the shade down, and motioned Behrman into the other room. In there they peered out the window fearfully at the ivy vine. Then they looked at each other for a moment without speaking. A persistent, cold rain was falling, mingled with snow. Behrman, in his old blue shirt, took his seat as the miner on an upturned kettle for a rock. 两人上了楼,约翰西已经睡着了。苏放下窗帘,示意贝尔曼去另一个房间。在那儿两 人惶惶不安地凝视着窗外的常青藤。接着两人面面相觑,哑然无语。外面冷雨夹雪,淅淅沥 沥。贝尔曼穿着破旧的蓝色衬衣, 坐在充当矿石的倒置的水壶上,摆出矿工的架势。 22 When Sue awoke from an hour's sleep the next morning she found Johnsy with dull, wide-open eyes staring at the drawn green shade. 第二天早上, 只睡了一个小时的苏醒来看到约翰西睁大着无神的双眼, 凝望着拉下的 绿色窗帘。 23 "Pull it up; I want to see," she ordered, in a whisper. “把窗帘拉起来;我要看, ”她低声命令道。 Wearily Sue obeyed. 苏带着疲倦,遵命拉起窗帘。

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25 But, Lo! after the beating rain and fierce wind that had endured through the night, there yet stood out against the brick wall one ivy leaf. It was the last on the vine. Still dark green near its stem, but with its edges colored yellow, it hung bravely from a branch some twenty feet above the ground. 可是,瞧! 经过一整夜的急风骤雨, 竟然还存留一片常青藤叶,背靠砖墙,格外显目。 这是常青藤上的最后一片叶子。近梗部位仍呈暗绿色,但边缘已经泛黄了,它无所畏惧地挂 在离地 20 多英尺高的枝干上。 26 "It is the last one," said Johnsy. "I thought it would surely fall during the night. I heard the wind. It will fall today, and I shall die at the same time." “这是最后一片叶子, ”约翰西说。 “我以为夜里它肯定会掉落的。我晚上听到大风呼 啸。今天它会掉落的,叶子掉的时候,也是我死的时候。 ” 27 The day wore away, and even through the twilight they could see the lone ivy leaf clinging to its stem against the wall. And then, with the coming of the night the north wind was again loosed. 白天慢慢过去了,即便在暮色黄昏之中,他们仍能看到那片孤零零的常青藤叶子,背 靠砖墙,紧紧抱住梗茎。尔后,随着夜幕的降临,又是北风大作。 28 When it was light enough Johnsy, the merciless, commanded that the shade be raised. 等天色亮起,冷酷无情的约翰西命令将窗帘拉起。 The ivy leaf was still there. 常青藤叶依然挺在。

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30 Johnsy lay for a long time looking at it. And then she called to Sue, who was stirring her chicken soup over the gas stove. 约翰西躺在那儿,望着它许久许久。接着她大声呼唤正在煤气灶上搅鸡汤的苏。 31 "I've been a bad girl, Sudie," said Johnsy. "Something has made that last leaf stay there to show me how wicked I was. It is a sin to want to die. You may bring me a little soup now, and some milk with a little port in it and -- no; bring me a hand-mirror first, and then pack some pillows about me, and I will sit up and watch you cook." “我一直像个不乖的孩子,苏迪, ”约翰西说。 “有一种力量让那最后一片叶子不掉, 好让我看到自己有多坏。想死是一种罪过。你给我喝点汤吧,再来点牛奶,稍放一点波尔图 葡萄酒――不,先给我拿面小镜子来,弄几个枕头垫在我身边,我要坐起来看你做菜。 ” 32 An hour later she said: 一个小时之后,她说: "Sudie, some day I hope to paint the Bay of Naples." “苏迪,我真想有一天去画那不勒斯海湾。 ”

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The doctor came in the afternoon, and Sue had an excuse to go into the hallway as he left. 下午大夫来了,他走时苏找了个借口跟进了过道。 "Even chances," said the doctor, taking Sue's thin, shaking hand in his. “现在是势均力敌, ”大夫说着,握了握苏纤细颤抖的手。

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36 "With good nursing you'll win. And now I must see another case I have downstairs. Behrman, his name is -- some kind of an artist, I believe. Pneumonia, too. He is an old, weak man, and the attack is acute. There is no hope for him; but he goes to the hospital today to be made more comfortable." “只要精心照料,你就赢了。现在我得去楼下看另外一个病人了。贝尔曼,是他的名 字――记得是个什么画家。也是肺炎。他年老体弱,病来势又猛。他是没救了。不过今天他 去了医院,照料得会好一点。 ” 37 The next day the doctor said to Sue: "She's out of danger. You've won. The right food and care now -- that's all." 第二天,大夫对苏说: “她脱离危险了。你赢了。注意饮食,好好照顾,就行了。 ” 38 And that afternoon Sue came to the bed where Johnsy lay and put one arm around her. 当日下午,苏来到约翰西的床头,用一只手臂搂住她。

39 "I have something to tell you, white mouse," she said. "Mr. Behrman died of pneumonia today in the hospital. He was ill only two days. He was found on the morning of the first day in his room downstairs helpless with pain. His shoes and clothing were wet through and icy cold. They couldn't imagine where he had been on such a terrible night. And then they found a lantern, still lighted, and a ladder that had been dragged from its place, and some scattered brushes, and a palette with green and yellow colors mixed on it, and -- look out the window, dear, at the last ivy leaf on the wall. Didn't you wonder why it never fluttered or moved when the wind blew? Ah, darling, it's Behrman's masterpiece -- he painted it there the night that the last leaf fell." “我跟你说件事,小白鼠, ”她说。 “贝尔曼先生今天在医院里得肺炎去世了。他得病 才两天。发病那天上午人家在楼下他的房间里发现他疼得利害。他的鞋子衣服都湿透了,冰 冷冰冷的。 他们想不出那么糟糕的天气他夜里会去哪儿。 后来他们发现了一个灯笼, 还亮着, 还有一个梯子被拖了出来,另外还有些散落的画笔,一个调色板,和着黄绿两种颜色,―― 看看窗外,宝贝儿,看看墙上那最后一片常青藤叶子。它在刮风的时候一动也不动,你没有 觉得奇怪吗?啊, 亲爱的, 那是贝尔曼的杰作――最后一片叶子掉落的那天夜里他画上了这 片叶子。 ” He did not trust the woman to trust him. And he did not trust the woman not to trust him. And he did not want to be mistrusted now. 他不敢相信这个女人居然会信任自己。他也不认为这个女人就不信任自己。不过,现 在他不想失去别人对自己的信任。

unit 7 Life of a Salesman

Making a living as a door-to-door salesman demands a thick skin, both to protect against the weather and against constantly having the door shut in your face. Bill Porter puts up with all this and much, much more. 干挨家挨户上门推销这一营生得脸皮厚, 这是因为干这一行不仅要经受风吹日晒, 还 要承受一次又一次的闭门羹。比尔 · 波特忍受着这一切,以及别的种种折磨。 Life of a Salesman Tom Hallman Jr. 1 The alarm rings. It's 5:45. He could linger under the covers, listening to the radio and a weatherman who predicts rain. People would understand. He knows that. 一个推销员的生活 小汤姆 · 霍尔曼 闹钟响了。是清晨 5:45。他可以在被子里再躺一会儿,听听无线电广播。天气预报 员预报有雨。人们会理解的。这点他清楚。 2 A surgeon's scar cuts across his lower back. The fingers on his right hand are so twisted that he can't tie his shoes. Some days, he feels like surrendering. But his dead mother's challenge echoes in his soul. So, too, do the voices of those who believed him stupid, incapable of living independently. All his life he's struggled to prove them wrong. He will not quit. 3 And so Bill Porter rises. 他的下背有一道手术疤痕。他右手的手指严重扭曲,连鞋带都没法系。有时,他真想 放弃不干了。可在他内心深处,一直回响着已故老母的激励, 还有那些说他蠢,说他不能独 立生活的人的声音。他一生都在拚命去证明他们错了。他决不能放弃不干。 于是比尔·波特起身了。 4 He takes the first unsteady steps on a journey to Portland's streets, the battlefield where he fights alone for his independence and dignity. He's a door-to-door salesman. Sixty-three years old. And his enemies -- a crippled body that betrays him and a changing world that no longer needs him -- are gaining on him. 他摇摇晃晃迈出了去波特兰大街的头几步, 波特兰大街是他为独立与尊严而孤身搏杀 的战场。他是个挨家挨户上门推销的推销员,今年 63 岁。他的敌人――辜负他的残疾的身 体和一个不再需要他的变化着的世界――正一步一步把他逼向绝境。

5 With trembling hands he assembles his weapons: dark slacks, blue shirt and matching jacket, brown tie, tan raincoat and hat. Image, he believes, is everything. 他用颤抖的双手收拾行装:深色宽松裤,蓝衬衣和与之相配的茄克衫,褐色领带,土 褐色雨衣和帽子。在他看来,形象就是一切。

6 He stops in the entryway, picks up his briefcase and steps outside. A fall wind has kicked up. The weatherman was right. He pulls his raincoat tighter. 7 He tilts his hat just so. 他在门口停了一下,提起公文包,走了出去。秋风骤起, 冷飕飕的。天气预报员说得没错。他将雨衣裹裹紧。 他把帽子往一侧微微一斜。 *** 8 On the 7:45 bus that stops across the street, he leaves his briefcase next to the driver and finds a seat in the middle of a pack of bored teenagers. 9 He leans forward, stares toward the driver, sits back, then repeats the process. His nervousness makes him laugh uncontrollably. The teenagers stare at him. They don't realize Porter's afraid someone will steal his briefcase, with the glasses, brochures, order forms and clip-on tie that he needs to survive. 在街对面停靠的 7:45 那班公共汽车上,他把公文包放在司机身旁,在一群没精打采 的十几岁的孩子当中找了个位子坐下。 他身子往前一倾,盯着司机那儿望,然后靠着椅背坐下,接着他又反复这个过程。他 心情紧张,控制不住自己而笑出声来。那些孩子望着他。他们不明白,波特是担心有人偷他 的包,包里有他生存不可缺少的眼镜,宣传小册子,定单,以及可用别针别上的领带。 10 Porter senses the stares. He looks at the floor. 11 His face reveals nothing. In his heart, though, he knows he should have been like these kids, like everyone on this bus. He's not angry. But he knows. His mother explained how the delivery had been difficult, how the doctor had used an instrument that crushed a section of his brain and caused cerebral palsy, a disorder of the nervous system that affects his speech, hands and walk. 波特意识到了小孩子在盯着他看。他把目光转向车厢地板。 他脸上没有流露出任何神情。但在他心里,他知道自己本该和这些孩子一样,和车上 其他所有人一样。他并不生气。但他心里明白。他母亲解释说生他时难产,医生使用了某种 器械,损坏了他大脑的一部分,导致了大脑性麻痹,一种影响他说话,手部活动以及行走的 神经系统的紊乱。 12 Porter came to Portland when he was 13 after his father, a salesman, was transferred here. He attended a school for the disabled and then Lincoln High School, where he was placed in a class for slow kids. 13 But he wasn't slow. 波特 13 岁那年随着当推销员的父亲工作调动来到波特兰。他上了一个残疾人学校,后来就 读林肯高级中学,在那儿他被编入慢班。 但他并不笨。 14 His mind was trapped in a body that didn't work. Speaking was difficult and took time. People were impatient and didn't listen. He felt different -- was different -- from the kids who rushed about in the halls and planned dances he would never attend. 他由于身体不能正常运行而使脑子不能充分发挥其功能。他说话困难,而且慢。别人 不耐烦, 不听他说。 他觉得自己不同于――事实上也确实不同于――那些在过道里东奔西跑

的孩子,那些孩子安排的舞会他永远也不可能参加。 15 What could his future be? Porter wanted to do something and his mother was certain that he could rise above his limitations. With her encouragement, he applied for a job with the Fuller Brush Co. only to be turned down. He couldn't carry a product briefcase or walk a route, they said. 他将来会是个什么样子呢?波特想做些事, 母亲也相信他能冲破身体的局限。 在她的 鼓励之下,他向福勒牙刷公司申请一份工作,结果却遭到拒绝。他不能提样品包,也不能跑 一条推销线路,他们说。 16 Porter knew he wanted to be a salesman. He began reading help wanted ads in the newspaper. When he saw one for Watkins, a company that sold household products door-to-door, his mother set up a meeting with a representative. The man said no, but Porter wouldn't listen. He just wanted a chance. The man gave in and offered Porter a section of the city that no salesman wanted. 波特知道自己想当推销员。他开始阅读报纸上的招聘广告。他看到沃特金斯,一家上 门推销家用物品的公司要人, 他母亲就跟其代理人安排会面。 那人说不行, 可波特不予理会。 他就是需要一个机会。那人让步了,把城里一个其他推销员都不要的区域派给了他。 17 It took Porter four false starts before he found the courage to ring the first doorbell. The man who answered told him to go away, a pattern repeated throughout the day. 波特一开始四次都没敢敲门, 第五次才鼓起勇气按了第一户人家的门铃。 开门的那人 让他走开,这种情形持续了一整天。 18 That night Porter read through company literature and discovered the products were guaranteed. He would sell that pledge. He just needed people to listen. 19 If a customer turned him down, Porter kept coming back until they heard him. And he sold. 当晚, 波特仔细阅读了公司的宣传资料, 发现产品都是保用的。 他要把保用作为卖点。 只要别人肯听他说话就成。 要是客户回绝波特,拒绝倾听他的介绍,他就一再上门。就这样他将产品卖了出去。 20 For several years he was Watkins' top retail salesman. Now he is the only one of the company's 44,000 salespeople who sells door-to-door. 21 The bus stops in the Transit Mall, and Porter gets off. 他连着几年都是沃特金斯公司的最佳零售推销员。 如今他是该公司 44000 名推销员中 惟一一个上门推销的人。 公共汽车在公交中转购物中心站停下,波特下了车。 22 His body is not made for walking. Each step strains his joints. Headaches are constant visitors. His right arm is nearly useless. He can't fully control the limb. His body tilts at the waist; he seems to be heading into a strong, steady wind that keeps him off balance. At times, he looks like a toddler taking his first steps. 23 He walks 10 miles a day. 他的身体不适合行走。每走一步关节都疼。头疼也是习以为常的事。他的右臂几乎没 用。他不能完全控制这只手臂。他的身体从腰部开始前倾,看上去就像是顶着一股强劲的吹

个不停的风迈步向前,风似乎要把他刮倒。有时他看上去就像是个刚刚学步的孩童。 他每天要走 10 英里的路程。 24 His first stop today, like every day, is a shoeshine stand where employees tie his laces. Twice a week he pays for a shine. At a nearby hotel one of the doormen buttons Porter's top shirt button and slips on his clip-on tie. He then walks to another bus that drops him off a mile from his territory. 25 He left home nearly three hours ago. 像平日一样,他今天的第一站是个擦鞋摊,这里的雇员替他系好鞋带。他每周请他们 擦两次鞋。附近一家旅馆的门卫替他扣上衬衣最上面一粒纽扣,戴上用别针别上的领带。随 后他步行去搭乘另一部巴士,在距离他的推销区域一英里处下车。 他是差不多 3 个小时前从家里动身的。 *** 26 The wind is cold and raindrops fall. Porter stops at the first house. This is the moment he's been preparing for since 5:45 a.m. He rings the bell. 27 A woman comes to the door. 风冷雨淋。波特在第一户人家门前停了下来。这是他从 5:45 分开始就为之准备的时 刻。他按了门铃。 一位妇人开了门。 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 "Hello." "No, thank you, I'm just preparing to leave." Porter nods. "May I come back later?" he asks. "No," says the woman. She shuts the door. Porter's eyes reveal nothing. He moves to the next house. The door opens. Then closes. “你好。 ” “不,多谢了。我这就要出门。 ” 波特点点头。 “那我过会儿来,可以吗?”他问。 “不用了, ”那妇人回答道。 她关上了门。 波特眼里没有流露丝毫神情。 他转向下一个人家。 门开了。 随即又关上。 He doesn't get a chance to speak. Porter's expression never changes. He stops at every

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home in his territory. People might not buy now. Next time. Maybe. No doesn't mean never. Some of his best customers are people who repeatedly turned him down before buying. 他连开口说话的机会都没有。 波特的表情从不改变。 他敲开自己推销区内的每一个家 门。人们现在可能不买什么。也许下一次会买。现在不买不等于永远不买。他的一些老客户 都是那些多次把他拒之门外而后来才买的人。 39 40 41 42 43 He makes his way down the street. "I don't want to try it." "Maybe next time." "I'm sorry. I'm on the phone right now." "No." 他沿着街道往前走。 “我不想试用这个产品。 ” “也许下次试一试。 ” “对不起。我在打电话。 ” “不要。 ”

44 Ninety minutes later, Porter still has not made a sale. But there is always another home. 45 He walks on. 46 He knocks on a door. A woman appears from the backyard where she's gardening. She often buys, but not today, she says, as she walks away. 47 "Are you sure?" Porter asks. 48 She pauses. 49 "Well..." 90 分钟之后,波特仍没能卖出一件物品。不过,下面有的是人家。 他继续向前走。 他敲响一扇门。一位正在拾掇花园的妇女从后院走了出来。她常常买他的东西,不过 今天不买,她说着走开了。 “你真的不买什么?”波特问。 她迟疑了一下。 “那么??” 50 That's all Porter needs. He walks as fast as he can, tailing her as she heads to the backyard. He sets his briefcase down and opens it. He puts on his glasses, removes his brochures and begins his sales talk, showing the woman pictures and describing each product. 波特要的就是这一迟疑。他尽可能快步上前,跟着她朝后院走去。他放下公文包,打 了开来。他戴上眼镜,拿出产品介绍小册子,开始推销,给那位妇人看图片,详细介绍每一 个产品。 51 52 53 54 55 Spices? "No." Jams? "No. Maybe nothing today, Bill." Porter's hearing is the one perfect thing his body does. Except when he gets a live one.

Then the word "no" does not register. 调料? “不要。 ” 果酱? “不要。恐怕今天不要什么,比尔。 ” 波特的听觉是他身上惟一没有一点毛病的功能。 只有当他察觉对方有可能买他东西的 时候才会发生例外。这个时候,他是听不见“不”字的。 56 Pepper? 57 "No." 58 Laundry soap? 59 "Hmm." 60 Porter stops. He smells blood. He quickly remembers her last order. 61 "Say, aren't you about out of soap? That's what you bought last time. You ought to be out right about now." 62 "You're right, Bill. I'll take one." 胡椒粉? “不要。 ” 洗衣皂? “嗯。 ” 波特停了下来。他嗅到了猎物。他很快记起了她上次的订单。 “对了,你肥皂差不多用完了吧?你上次买的就是这个。现在该差不多用完了。 ” “没错,比尔。我买一块。 ” *** 63 He arrives home, in a rainstorm, after 7 p.m. Today was not profitable. He tells himself not to worry. Four days left in the week. 64 At least he's off his feet and home. 65 Inside, an era is preserved. The telephone is a heavy, rotary model. There is no VCR, no cable. 66 His is the only house in the neighborhood with a television antenna on the roof. 晚上 7 点过后,他在暴风雨中回到了家。今天没赚钱。他跟自己说别着急。这个星期 还有 4 天呢。 至少他回到了家,不用再站立了。 屋内, 俨然是保存完好的一个旧时代。 电话是笨重的拨盘式的那种。 没有录像放映机, 没有有线电视。 他家是附近惟一一家屋顶上支着电视接收天线的人家。 67 He leads a solitary life. Most of his human contact comes on the job. Now, he heats the oven and slips in a frozen dinner because it's easy to fix. 68 The job usually takes him 10 hours. 69 He's a weary man who knows his days -- no matter what his intentions -- are numbered. 70 He works on straight commission. He gets no paid holidays, vacations or raises. Yes, some months are lean.

他过着离群索居的生活。他跟别人的来往大都限于工作上。他打开了烤炉,放了一盒 冷藏食品进去,因为这样做饭方便。 他的工作通常要花去他 10 个小时。 他身心疲惫,知道来日无多了――不管他愿不愿意。 他的收入完全依靠佣金。他没有带薪假期,没有度假,也没有加薪。的确,有些月份 收入相当微薄。 71 In 1993, he needed back surgery to relieve pain caused from decades of walking. He was laid up for five months and couldn't work. He was forced to sell his house. The new owners, familiar with his situation, froze his rent and agreed to let him live there until he dies. 1993 年,他需要作背部手术,以减轻数十年行走引起的疼痛。他卧床五个月,无法 工作。他被迫出售房子。房子的新主人了解他的处境,冻结了他的房租,并答应让他在有生 之年继续住在那里。 72 He doesn't feel sorry for himself. 73 The house is only a building. A place to live, nothing more. 74 His dinner is ready. He eats at the kitchen table and listens to the radio. The afternoon mail brought bills that he will deal with later this week. The checkbook is upstairs in the bedroom. 75 His checkbook. 他并不因此自悲自怜。 房子只不过是个建筑物。一个住的地方。仅此而已。 晚饭好了。 他在厨房的桌子旁吃饭, 边吃边听着收音机。 下午的邮差送来了他的账单, 这些账单他将在这个星期后几天支付。支票簿在楼上卧室里。 他的私人支票簿。 76 77 78 79 80 81 He types in the recipient's name and signs his name. The signature is small and scrawled. Unreadable. But he knows. Bill Porter. Bill Porter, salesman. 他用打字机打上收款人的名字,随后签上名。 签名小小的,字迹潦草。 难以辨认。 可他认得出来。 比尔·波特。 推销员比尔·波特。

82 From his easy chair he hears the wind lash his house and the rain pound the street outside his home. He must dress warmly tomorrow. He's sleepy. With great care he climbs the stairs to his bedroom. 83 In time, the lights go off. 84 Morning will be here soon. 他坐在安乐椅上, 只听得呼啸的大风猛烈地冲击着他的屋子, 大雨击打着屋外的街面。

明天他得穿得暖和些。他觉得睏了,他小心翼翼地爬上楼就寝。 没过一会儿,灯就灭了。 早晨很快就会来临。 When children take up ways of making a living that differ greatly from their parents, differences in outlook can easily arise. This is what Alfred Lubrano found. Brought up in the family of a building worker, education led him to develop different interests and ambitions from his father. Here he writes about how this affected their relationship. 当子女的谋生方式与父母大相径庭时,很容易产生观念上的差异。 这正是艾尔弗雷 德·卢布拉诺的发现。他在一个建筑工人的家庭里长大,他所受的教育使他产生了不同于父 亲的兴趣与抱负。他在本文中叙述了这一差异如何影响着他们的父子关系。

Bricklayer's Boy
Alfred Lubrano 1 My father and I were both at the same college back in the mid 1970s. While I was in class at Columbia, he was laying bricks not far up the street, working on a campus building. 砖瓦匠的儿子 艾尔弗雷德·卢布拉诺 二十世纪七十年代中期,我和父亲同在一所大学里。我在哥伦比亚大学上学,他在同 一条街不远的地方砌砖,在校园的一处建筑工地上干活。 2 Sometimes we'd hook up on the subway going home, he with his tools, I with my books. We didn't chat much about what went on during the day. My father wasn't interested in Dante, I wasn't up on arches. We'd share a New York Post and talk about the Mets. 有时我俩一起坐地铁回家,他提着工具,我拿着书本。我俩不怎么聊白天的事。我父 亲对但丁没有兴趣,我也不懂拱门什么的。我俩看一份《纽约邮报》 ,谈论大都会棒球队的 比赛情况。 3 My dad has built lots of places in New York City he can't get into: colleges, apartments, office towers. He makes his living on the outside. Once the walls are up, a place takes on a different feel for him, as if he's not welcome anymore. It doesn't bother him, though. For my father, earning the cash that paid for my entry into a fancy, bricked-in institution was satisfaction enough. (1) We didn't know it then, but those days were the start of a branching off, a redefining of what it means to be a workingman in our family. Related by blood, we're separated by class, my father and I. Being the white-collar son of a blue-collar man means being the hinge on the door between two ways of life. 我爸爸建造了纽约市的许多他进不去的建筑:大学,公寓,办公大楼。他在建筑物的 外面谋生。一旦高墙耸起,这建筑给他的感受就变了,他好像不再受到欢迎。不过他对此并 不在意。对我父亲来说,挣点钱好让我进入一所高档的、用砖墙围起来的大学就读就挺满足 了,就像他自己进去一样。当时我俩并未意识到这一点,但那就是我们之间开始拉开距离的 日子,是开始在家庭内部重新界定劳动者的意义的日子。我们父子俩血脉相连,却分属不同 的阶级。作为一个蓝领工人的白领儿子,就等于是两种不同生活方式之间的大门上的铰链。

4 It's not so smooth jumping from Italian old-world style to U.S. yuppie in a single generation. Despite the myth of mobility in America, the true rule, experts say, is rags to rags, riches to riches. Maybe 10 percent climb from the working to the professional class. My father has had a tough time accepting my decision to become a mere newspaper reporter, a field that pays just a little more than construction does. He wonders why I haven't cashed in on that multi-brick education and taken on some lawyer-lucrative job. After bricklaying for thirty years, my father promised himself I'd never lay bricks for a living. He figured an education would somehow rocket me into the upwardly mobile, and load some serious money into my pockets. (2) What he didn't count on was his eldest son breaking blue-collar rule No. 1: Make as much money as you can, to pay for as good a life as you can get. 仅在一代人的时间里,从旧的意大利生活方式一跃而成为美国的雅皮士不是件容易 事。虽说美国有社会阶层上下流动的神话,专家们却指出,真实的情况是,穷者穷, 富者富。 或许有百分之十的人从工人阶级爬到专业技术阶层。 我父亲好不容易才接受了我当一名普通 报纸记者的决定,因为这个行当的收入只略高于建筑业。他不明白,我为什么不利用他砌砖 赚钱付学费让我获得的大学教育,找一份诸如律师那种收入丰厚的工作。我父亲砌了 30 年 的墙, 他发誓不让我靠砌墙谋生。 他以为我受过教育就能一步登天加入向上流社会流动的行 列,并赚上大把大把的钞票把衣袋装得鼓鼓的。他没有想到的是,他的大儿子打破了蓝领规 则的第一条:赚尽可能多的钱,过尽可能好的生活。

5 He'd tell me about it when I was nineteen, my collar already fading to white. I was the college boy who handed him the wrong wrench on help-around-the-house Saturdays. "You better make a lot of money," my blue-collar handy dad warned. "You're gonna need to hire someone to hammer a nail into a wall for you." 我 19 岁时他就跟我这么说了, 那时我的衣领已经开 始变白。我是在大学念书的儿子,星期六在家里帮忙时递给他的扳手总是不对。 “你最好赚 好多好多钱, ”我的手巧的蓝领父亲告诫道。 “你将来连墙上钉个钉子也要雇人帮忙。 ” 6 In 1980, after college and graduate school, I was offered my first job, on a daily paper in Columbus, Ohio. I broke the news in the kitchen, where all the family business is discussed. My mother wept as if it were Vietnam. My father had a few questions: "Ohio? Where the hell is Ohio?" 1980 年,我读了大学又读了研究生毕业后,俄亥俄州哥伦比亚市的一份日报给了我 第一个工作。我在厨房里说了这事,因为家里的事都是在厨房里谈论的。我母亲哭了,好像 是去越南打仗似的。我父亲问了几个问题: “俄亥俄?俄亥俄到底在哪儿?” 7 I said it's somewhere west of New York City, that it was like Pennsylvania, only more so. I told him I wanted to write, and these were the only people who'd take me. 我说是在纽约城西面一个地方,就像宾夕法尼亚州一样,只是更往西。我跟他说我想 写作,只有他们肯给我这份工作。 8 "Why can't you get a good job that pays something, like in advertising in the city, and write on the side?"

“为什么你就不能找个收入高一点的好工作呢, 比如在纽约做广告, 边工作边写作?” 9 "Advertising is lying," I said. "I wanna tell the truth." “广告是撒谎, ”我说。 “我要报道事实。 ”

10 "The truth?" the old man exploded, his face reddening as it does when he's up twenty stories in high wind. "What's truth?" I said it's real life, and writing about it would make me happy. "You're happy with your family," my father said, spilling blue-collar rule No. 2. "That's what makes you happy. After that, it all comes down to dollars and cents. What gives you comfort besides your family? Money, only money." “事实?”老头气炸了,脸涨得通红,就像他顶着狂风站在 20 层楼高的地方。 “什么 是事实?”我说就是真实的生活,报道真实的生活会使我幸福。 “你跟家人一起就是幸福, ” 我父亲说,无意中道出了蓝领规则的第二条。 “那才是让你幸福的东西。除了这,一切都归 结为美元、金钱。除了你的家还有什么给你安慰?钱,只有钱。 ” 11 During the two weeks before I moved, he reminded me that newspaper journalism is a dying field, and I could do better. No longer was I the good son who studied hard. I was hacking people off. 临行前的两个星期里,他提醒我说,报纸新闻是个行将消亡的行当,我完全可以有个 更好的前程。我不再是那个用功听话的孩子。我让人大失所望. 12 One night, though, my father brought home some heavy tape and that clear, plastic bubble stuff you pack your mother's second-string dishes in. "You probably couldn't do this right," my father said to me before he sealed the boxes and helped me take them to UPS. "This is what he wants," my father told my mother the day I left for Columbus. "What are you gonna do?" after I said my good-byes, my father took me aside and pressed five $100 bills into my hands. "It's okay," he said over my weak protests. "Don't tell your mother." 可是,一天晚上,我父亲带回家一些粗胶纸和透明的塑料泡沫材料,就是人家用来装 母亲的备用餐具的那种。 “看来你做不了这个事, ”父亲对我说。接着他封好箱子并帮我把箱 子拿到联邦快运公司。 “这是他要做的事, ”我动身去哥伦比亚那天,父亲对母亲说。 “你有 什么办法呢?”我道别后,父亲把我拉到一边,往我手里塞了 5 张 100 元的票子。我稍微推 辞了一下。他就说, “拿着吧, 别告诉你妈就是了。 ” 13 When I broke the news about what the paper was paying me, my father suggested I get a part-time job to supplement my income. "Maybe you could drive a cab." Once, after I was chewed out by the city editor for something trivial, I made the mistake of telling my father during a visit home. "They pay you nothin', and they push you around too much in that business," he told me, the rage building. "Next time, you gotta grab the guy by the throat and tell him he's a big jerk." 当我跟他们说了报社给我多少薪水时,父亲建议我找个兼职以弥补工资的不足。 “也 许你可以开出租车。 ”有一次,为了件小事我被本地新闻编辑责骂,我犯了个错,回家时把 这事跟父亲讲了。 “他们简直就不付你什么工钱, 把你差来差去, 欺人太甚了, ” 他跟我说着, 火气就上来了。 “下一次,你要卡着那家伙的脖子,告诉他,他是个大混蛋。 ” 14 My father isn't crazy about his life. He wanted to be a singer and actor when he was young,

but his Italian family expected money to be coming in. (3) My dad learned a trade, as he was supposed to, and settled into a life of pre-scripted routine. 我父亲对自己的生活并不心满意足。 他年轻时想当歌唱家和演员, 可他的意大利家庭 等着钱用。爸爸就像家人期望的那样,学了一门手艺,过上了一种预先设计好的生活。 15 Although I see my dad infrequently, my brother, who lives at home, is with the old man every day. Chris has a lot more blue-collar in him than I do, despite his management-level career. Once in a while he'll bag a lunch and, in a nice wool suit, meet my father at a construction site and share sandwiches. 我虽然不经常见到爸爸,但我弟弟住在家里,天天和老爸在一起。克里斯虽然身为管 理人员,却比我更像蓝领。他不时地会装上一袋午餐,穿着考究的毛料西装,在建筑工地上 与父亲相会,跟他一起吃三明治。 16 It was Chris who helped my dad most when my father tried to change his life several months ago. My dad wanted a civil-service bricklayer foreman's job that wouldn't be so physically demanding. There was a written test that included essay questions about construction work. My father hadn't done anything like it in forty years. Every morning before sunrise, Chris would be ironing a shirt and my father would sit at the kitchen table and read aloud his practice essays on how to wash down a wall, or how to build a tricky corner. Chris would suggest words and approaches. 几个月前,当父亲想改变一下自己的生活时,是克里斯给了父亲最大的帮助。父亲想 当行政部门砌砖工人的领班,这活儿对体力的要求不是太高。想做这份工作,要参加笔试, 回答有关建筑工作的一些问题。父亲有 40 年没做过这样的事情了。每天太阳还没有出来, 克里斯在一边熨烫衬衣,父亲坐在厨房餐桌旁,大声朗读他练习写的怎么洗刷墙壁,怎么砌 一个难砌的墙角的回答。克里斯则提出建议,用什么词儿,如何回答。 17 It was so hard for my dad. He had to take a prep course in a junior high school three nights a week after work for six weeks. At class time, the outside men would come in, twenty-five construction workers squeezing themselves into little desks. Tough blue-collar guys armed with No. 2 pencils leaning over and scratching out their practice essays, cement in their hair, tar on their pants, their work boots too big and clumsy to fit under the desks. 这真是难为了老父。一连 6 个星期,他下班后每星期 3 个晚上得去一所初中上培训班。 上课的时候,这些常年在外面干活的人走进教室,25 个建筑工人,一个个挤坐在小小的桌 椅里。干重活的蓝领工人握着 2 号铅笔,趴在桌子上费力地书写他们练习回答的文字,头发 里沾着水泥,裤子上蹭着沥青,工作靴又笨又重,小桌子下面都放不大下。 18 "Is this what finals felt like?" my father would ask me on the phone. "Were you always this nervous?" I told him yes. I told him writing's always difficult. He thanked Chris and me for the coaching, for putting him through school this time. My father thinks he did okay, but he's still awaiting the test results. (4) In the meantime, he takes life the blue-collar way, one brick at a time. “期终考试是不是都这样?”父亲在电话里会问我。 “你以前也一直这么紧张吗?” 我跟他说是的。我跟他说写文章向来不容易。他感谢我和克里斯辅导他,帮助他这次完成了 学业。父亲觉得自己考得不错,不过他还在等考试成绩出来。与此同时,他继续他的蓝领生 活,一步一个脚印。

19 When we see each other these days, my father still asks how the money is. Sometimes he reads my stories; usually he likes them, although he recently criticized one piece as being a bit sentimental. 如今,我俩见面时,父亲仍要问我挣多少钱。有时他读我写的报道;他通常还喜欢, 不过最近他批评我的一篇报道有点感情用事。 20 During one of my visits to Brooklyn not long ago, he and I were in the car, on our way to buy toiletries, one of my father's weekly routines. "You know, you're not as successful as you could be," he began, blue-collar blunt as usual. "You paid your dues in school. You deserve better restaurants, better clothes." Here we go, I thought, the same old stuff. I'm sure every family has five or six similar big issues that are replayed like well-worn videotapes. I wanted to fast-forward this thing when we stopped at a red light. 不久前我回布鲁克林,和他坐在车里,去买化妆用品。这是父亲每星期要干的事情。 “我说, 你是可以干得好一些的, ” 他又开始了, 还是蓝领风格直来直去。 “你读书时挺卖力。 你理应上好一点的饭店,穿好一点的衣裳。 ”又来了,我心想,又是老一套。我敢肯定每家 人家都有那么 5、6 个类似的经常争论的大问题,就像反复放了多遍老掉牙的录像带。我们 在一个红灯前停下时,我想着要把这事快快带过去。 21 Just then my father turned to me, solemn and intense. "I envy you," he said quietly. "For a man to do something he likes and get paid for it -- that's fantastic." He smiled at me before the light changed, and we drove on. To thank him for the understanding, I sprang for the deodorant and shampoo. For once, my father let me pay. 就在那时,父亲转身看着我,满脸严肃认真。 “我羡慕你, ”他轻声道。 “一个人能做 自己喜欢做的事,还能挣钱――真是好极了。 ”他对着我微笑,变绿灯了,我们继续往前开。 为了感谢他的理解,我冲上前去,买了除臭剂和香波,这一次父亲总算让我付了钱。

unit 8

Human Cloning: A Scientist's Story Dr. Samuel Wood via interview

I was extremely close with my mother all my life. She was a brilliant educator, writer and wonder ful woman. Sadly, she developed complications related to diabetes. When she lost her eyesight and most of her ability to walk, it was absolutely horrifying for me. She passed away from a fall seven or eight years ago. At her funeral, I swore that one day I'd do something about conditions like hers . 克隆人:一位科学家的故事 塞缪尔·伍德博士采访录 我一生与母亲无比亲密。她是一位卓越的教育家、作家,是一位了不起的女士。不幸的是, 她患上了糖尿病引起的并发症。当她丧失视力和大部分行走能力时,我惊恐万状。七、八年 前, 她摔了一跤便离开人世。 在她的葬礼上, 我发誓有朝一日要为她那样的疾病做点什么。 2. Years passed and I read about the work the South Koreans had done with stem cells. In 2004 an d 2005 Hwang Woo-Suk fraudulently reported that he had succeeded in creating human embryoni c stem cells by cloning. 时间一年年过去,我读到了韩国人在干细胞研究方面所做的工作。在 2004 年和 2005 年间, 黄禹锡谎称他已通过克隆技术成功地培养出人类胚胎干细胞。 3. Back then it wasn't known it was a fraud, so it was very exciting to think that a long list of disea ses could be treated. 当时人们并不知道那是造假,所以想到一长串疾病有望得到医治,人们兴奋不 已。 4. I founded the stem cell research company Stemagen with another gentleman whose father had died of ALS. We went out for drinks one night and we started talking about our parents. We w anted to do something that would be a legacy for them. 我与另一位先生共同创建了斯塔摩根干细胞研究公司。 那位先生的父亲死于肌萎缩性 (脊髓) 侧索硬化。一天晚上,我们外出小酌,谈论起我们的父母。我们想做点什么,以此作为他们 身后留下的遗产。 5. For Better Or Worse? 是福是祸? 6. The moment we decided to start Stemagen, I read all there was to read about the various cloning efforts in the past. The cloned sheep Dolly in 1997 was very interesting, but at that stage people w ere not focusing on the stem cell aspect of cloning; they were focusing on the reproductive possibi lities of cloning. 一决定创建斯塔摩根干细胞研究公司, 我就阅读了有关以往各种克隆实验的所有资料。 1997 年的克隆羊多利引起了人们极大的兴趣。但在那个时候,人们关注的不是克隆技术的

干细胞层面,而是其无性繁殖的可能性问题。 7. Human reproductive cloning is just simply wrong ethically from a medical standpoint and a scie ntific standpoint, even ignoring any religious issues associated with it. The reason is that the major ity of reproductive clones in other species are actually abnormal, with very high miscarriage rates, very high stillbirth rates, fetal anomalies, death soon after birth, et cetera.

从医学和科学的角度来看, 克隆人在伦理道德上就是错误的, 即便不去理会与其相关的宗教 问题。其原因在于其他物种的无性繁殖个体事实上大多数都是畸形的,流产率很高,死产率 很高,胎儿畸形,出生不久便夭折,等等。 8. It would just be absolutely wrong to take a human being and put them through what may well in volve significant suffering for really no good end. Even though people could take the techniques t hat we've developed and attempt to do it (or perhaps even be successful doing it), we hope that the y would not. 让人经受极有可能遭到巨大痛苦的事,却又得不到什么好的结果,那是绝对错误的。即使有 人能够利用我们研发的技术,并且试图付诸实践(也许还能成功) ,我们还是希望他们不要 那样做。 9. On the other hand, therapeutic cloning does not involve any type of risk to human life and actu ally provides tremendous potential for the relief of suffering in real human beings who are going t hrough some awful things. 从另一方面来说, 治疗性的克隆技术不牵涉任何对人生命的威胁, 还能真正为正在经受痛苦 的人们提供缓解痛苦的极大的可能性。 10. I'm a pure scientist in some ways, and I know that many different studies or findings could be used for evil. Our job as scientists is to make the most of this technology and make it available to t he greatest number of other scientists who can help us do good things with it. There's really no eff ective way for an individual scientist to stop someone else from using the knowledge for somethin g they shouldn't. 在某种程度上,我是一个纯粹的科学家,可我知道种种研究或发现可能被用来做邪恶之事。 作为科学家,我们的工作是充分利用这一技术,并且使之被尽可能多的其他科学家掌握,帮 助我们做好事。 对于科学家个人而言, 其实没有什么行之有效的方法可以阻止他人将知识用 在他们不该用的地方。 11. We need to be honest about the techniques that we used. They need to be able to be replicated by other people, and so, we are providing a roadmap. I would hope that the legislation that's in pla ce and the great public disapproval that would result from any attempt to clone a human would dis suade anyone from going down that path. 我们必须诚实地说明我们所使用的技术。这些技术必须能够被他人复制,这样,我们等于提 供了一张路线图。 我希望适当的法规以及公众对于试图克隆人的极力反对能够劝阻任何有此 企图的人走那条路。 12. What is it they say? There is no technology that hasn't been used for some evil purpose at som e point. Quite honestly I do think that someone will attempt human reproductive cloning. I do thin k it's inevitable, and it's virtually impossible to legislate that away.

他们是怎么说的?他们说没有一项技术不曾在某个时候为了某种罪恶目的而被利用过。 坦诚

地说,我确实认为有人会试图克隆人。我确实认为那是不可避免的事,而且实际上也不可能 通过立法加以阻止。 13. Claim to Fame 出名 14. I am spoken of as the first man to "clone himself." There are different types of cloning. At the cellular level, yes, it's true I am the first man to clone himself. We thought a great deal about how t o deal with the issue of whose cells we should use and whether we should let the world and the sci entific community know who the first cellular clone was. 我被说成是第一个“克隆自己”的人。有不同类型的克隆。在细胞层面上讲,没错,我的确 是第一个克隆自己的人。 我们应该使用谁的细胞, 是否应该让世人及科学界知晓谁是第一个 细胞克隆体,对于如何处理上述问题我们想得很多。 15. In the end we decided that we wanted to put a human face on cloning. 最终,我们决定要让克隆体人性化。 16. I didn't anticipate it would create the firestorm of controversy that it's created, but I'm still glad we went down that path. We received thousands of e-mails and phone calls from people who need help. 我没料到这样做竟会掀起如此轩然大波,但是对于我们走过的这条路,我仍感到高兴。我们 从需要帮助的人们那里收到了成千上万的电子邮件和电话。 17. I think by coming forward and putting a face to it we made it very real, and now people around the world know that cloning is here. I believe that very soon it will be used therapeutically, so I th ink our purpose was served. 我认为通过主动地让克隆体人性化, 我们使克隆技术变得十分真实。 现在全世界的人都知道 克隆来了。我相信不久克隆技术将被用于治疗疾病,所以我认为我们的目的达到了。 18. Pure Science 纯科学 19. What happens is an informed and consenting woman donates an egg and we remove her geneti c material from the egg. Then we place a single skin cell inside that egg. 事情是这样的: 一位被告知实情并表示同意的女士捐出一个卵子。 我们取出卵子中的基因材 料,然后把单个皮肤细胞置入这个卵子。 20. What we're really interested in is creating disease-specific and person-specific stem cell lines. The procedure of taking cells from a person takes no more than a minute or two. You can take som e skin cells from the arm, for example, and in one to two minutes, you can get the cells that you ne ed to carry out this process. 我们真正感兴趣的是建立特定疾病及特定个体的干细胞系列。 从某人身上取出细胞的程序不 过一两分钟的工夫。比方说,你可以从手臂提取皮肤细胞,一两分钟后,便可得到实施

这一过程所需的细胞。 21. This process enables us to study the causes of specific diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease, ALS or Parkinson's Disease, and then research a variety of treatments for these diseases. If the ste m cell lines are created for any given individual and are later transplanted back into the individual, they will not be rejected by the individual. 这一过程有助于我们探究诸如早老性痴呆病、肌萎缩性(脊髓)侧索硬化或者帕金森氏病之 类特定疾病的起因, 并着手研究治疗这些疾病的种种方法。 如果干细胞系列是针对某一特定 个体而培育的,然后又被移植回那个个体,它们就不会遭排异。 22. Sweet Success 甜蜜的成功 23. I always thought that when our research was successful I would just be pleased that we had ac complished this when others had not. In reality, it is transcendent — when you look through the m icroscope, you see what you may have looked like a long time ago, at least in part. 我一直这么想,当我们的研究获得成功时,我会为我们取得了别人还未取得的成果而欣喜。 事实上, 这一研究成果真是妙不可言——透过显微镜, 你至少部分地看到自己很久以前大概 是什么模样。 24. When I looked down and saw that cloned blastocyst, it brought tears to my eyes. I had done th is for my mother, and I realized, had she only been able to live a few years longer, maybe we coul d have used this technology to help her. It was emotional to see that potential, which she never had a chance to experience. 当我低下头看到克隆出的胚泡时,不由得泪水盈眶。我是为母亲而做这一研究的。我想,母 亲只要能多活几年,我们或许就可以利用这一技术挽救她。看到存在那样一种可能,一种母 亲没有机会亲身享用的可能,不禁令人感慨万千。 25. There's a big misconception out there that we decided to destroy these embryos for some reaso n. There was so much skepticism about this process because of the scientific fraud from the past t hat it was critical that there be no doubt that they were clones. 我们出于某种原因决定毁掉这些克隆胚胎, 对此外界有很大误解。 由于以往的科学造假行为, 人们对于我们的研究过程抱有诸多怀疑,所以确保它们确系克隆胚胎是至关重要 的。 26. In the process of analysis, the embryos were destroyed by necessity. In other words, to ge t the genetic material from inside the cells to analyze it, you have to destroy the cell. We would ha ve loved to have been able to avoid destroying them. 在分析的过程中,我们必须毁掉那些胚胎。换句话说,从细胞里提取遗传物质进行分析,你 只得毁坏细胞。我们多么希望能够避免毁掉它们啊。 27. Now we're working full-time on creating stem cell lines, and people are watching with great in terest.

目前我们正夜以继日地培育干细胞系列,人们也饶有兴趣地关注着这项工作的进 展。 28. The Pope And The President

Second Thoughts on Cloning
Laurence H. Tribe 1 Some years ago, long before human cloning became a near-term prospect, I was among those who urged that human cloning be assessed not simply in terms of concrete costs and benefits, but in terms of what the technology might do to the very meaning of human reproduction, child rearing and individuality. I leaned toward prohibition as the safest course. 关于克隆的再思考 劳伦斯·H·特赖布 几年前,在克隆人还远未成为一种近期前景的时候,我和一些人一起,极力主张对人 类克隆的评判不仅仅要考虑到具体的代价与裨益,而且要考虑到这一技术将会对人类繁殖、 孩子的抚养以及对人的个性的真实意义会带来什么影响。 我倾向于禁止克隆人, 认为此乃最 为安全可靠的方针。 2 (1) Today, with the prospect of a renewed push for sweeping prohibition rather than mere regulation, I am inclined to say, "Not so fast." 时至今日, 眼看着新一轮要求对克隆人全面禁止而非简单规范的呼声即将再起, 我倒 想说: “慢一点来。 ” 3 When scientists announced in February that they had created a clone of an adult sheep -- a genetically identical copy named Dolly, created in the laboratory from a single cell of the "parent" -- fierce debate arose over the pros and cons of trying to clone a human being. 当科学家于 2 月宣布他们缔造了一头由成年羊克隆而成的克隆羊――这头羊名叫多 利,是从其“母体”的一个单细胞在实验室里缔造的基因完全一样的复制品――时,对克隆 人的利弊掀起了一场激烈的争论。 4 People spoke of the plight of infertile couples; the grief of someone who has lost a child whose biological "rebirth" might offer comfort; the prospect of using cloning to generate donors for tissues and organs; the possibility of creating genetically enhanced clones with a particular talent or a resistance to some dread disease.

有人说到不育夫妇的苦境, 说到人们失子之悲痛, 而生物再生可能给他们带来安慰; 说到利用克隆技术产生组织与器官捐赠人的可能性; 说到缔造强化基因克隆人的可能性, 这 些人可以拥有某种特别的才能或能抵御某些凶疾的能力。 5 But others saw a nightmarish and decidedly unnatural interference with human reproduction. California enacted a ban on human cloning, and the President's National Bioethics Advisory Commission recommended making the ban nationwide. 而有人则看到了对人类繁殖的 可怕的完全违背自然的干与。 加利福尼亚州通过了克隆人禁止令, 而总统的全国生物伦理顾 问委员会则建议将这一禁令推向全国。 6 That initial debate has cooled, however, and many in the scientific field now seem to be wondering what all the fuss was about. 然而,最初的论争渐渐平息,科学界不少人现在似乎诧异,当初那么大惊小怪是为哪 般。 7 They are asking whether human cloning isn't just a small step beyond what we are already doing with artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, fertility enhancing drugs and genetic manipulation. That casual attitude is sure to give way before long to yet another wave of prohibitionist outrage -- a wave that I no longer feel comfortable riding. 他们问道, 克隆人技术不就是比我们已经在做的人工授精、 试管婴儿、 增强授精药物、 基因控制等往前再走了一小步吗?这种不以为然的态度不用多久肯定会让位于另一波禁止 主义的狂潮,――本人对这波狂潮深感不安,无意做个弄潮儿。 8 I certainly don't subscribe to the view that whatever technology permits us to do we ought to do. Nor do I subscribe to the view that the Constitution necessarily guarantees every individual the right to reproduce through whatever means become technically possible. 我当然不赞同那种认为只要技术能办到的, 我们什么都该做的观点。 我也不赞同那种 认为宪法一定要保障每一个人有通过任何可能的科技手段进行繁殖的权利。 9 Rather, my concern is that the very decision to use the law to condemn, and then outlaw, patterns of human reproduction -- especially by appealing to vague notions of what is "natural" -is at least as dangerous as the technologies such a decision might be used to control. 相反, 我的担心是, 用法律的手段谴责并进而禁止人类某些繁殖模式的决定本身―― 尤其是藉助于什么是“自然”这一模糊观念――是危险的,其危险性不亚于这种决定可能用 去控制的那些技术。 10 Human cloning has been condemned by some of its most articulate opponents as the ultimate embodiment of the sexual revolution, separating sex from the creation of babies and treating gender and sexuality as socially constructed. 克隆人被某些最雄辩的反对者谴责为性革命的最极端的表现――即把性与生育孩子 相分离,把性别与性行为视为一种社会概念。 11 But to ban cloning as furthering what some see as culturally distressing trends may, in the end, lend support to strikingly similar objections to surrogate motherhood.

然而, 认为克隆技术会促进某些人所认为的文化上令人忧虑的倾向而加以禁止最终可 能会导致反对代孕的呼声得以增强,而这种反对与对克隆人的反对又是何等惊人的相似。 12 Equally scary, when appeals to the natural, or to religious laws, lead to the criminalization of some method for creating human babies, we must come to terms with the inevitable: the prohibition will not be airtight. 同样可怕的是,当诉诸自然的,或宗教的法则导致追究某些生育方式的刑事责任时, 我们就必须面对一种必然的局面:这种禁止不可能做到滴水不漏。 13 (2) Just as was true of bans on abortion and on sex outside marriage, bans on human cloning are bound to be hard to enforce. And that, in turn, requires us to think in terms of a class of potential outcasts -- people whose very existence society will have chosen to label as a misfortune and, in essence, to condemn. 就像禁止人工流产和婚外性行为一样, 禁止克隆人肯定难以实施。 而这一情况反过来 要求我们考虑一个可能产生的社会弃儿阶层――那些社会将其存在视为不幸并实质上加以 谴责的人们。 14 One need only think of the long struggle to overcome the stigma of "illegitimacy" for the children of unmarried parents. (3) How much worse might be the plight of being judged morally incomplete by virtue of one's man-made origin? 人们只要想一想为了消除非婚生孩子的“不法”污名所进行的长期努力就会明白。由 于一个人的人工出生而被判为道德欠缺的苦境将是何等难熬? 15 There are some black markets (in drugs, for instance) that may be worth risking when the evils of legalization would be even worse. But when what we prohibit takes the form of human beings, the stakes become enormous. 当合法化的弊端更为严重得多的情况下,我们可以冒点风险,允许有些黑市(例如毒 品)存在。可是,当我们所要禁止的是人的时候,这个风险就会变得非常巨大。 16 There are few evils as grave as that of creating a caste system, one in which an entire category of persons, while perhaps not labeled untouchable, is treated as not fully human. 人为制造一种等级制度,其中整整一类人,即使未必标上贱民二字,却被当成不完整 的人加以对待,还有什么弊端比这更为严重呢? 17 And even if one could enforce a ban on cloning, or at least insure that clones would not be a mistreated caste, the social costs of prohibition could still be high. For the arguments supporting a rigid prohibition of cloning are most likely to rest on, and reinforce, the notion that it is unnatural and wrong to cut the conventional links between marriage and the creation and upbringing of new life. 而即使能对克隆技术实施禁止, 或至少确保克隆人不是遭受歧视的等级, 禁止的社会 代价仍将是巨大的。因为支持严令禁止克隆人的论点极有可能基于并强化一个观点,即:割 断通常的传统上神圣的异性结合与新生命的缔造与养育之间的联系是违背自然的和错误的。 18 Moreover, a society that bans acts of human creation for no better reason than that their

particular form defies nature and tradition is a society that risks cutting itself off from vital experimentation, thus losing a significant part of its capacity to grow. (4) If human cloning is to be banned, then, the reasons had better be far more compelling than any thus far advanced. 而且, 一个社会仅仅由于某一特定的创造人类生命的方式与自然及传统相杵就禁止这 种行为,那么这个社会就有可能中断必要的实验,从而丧失其相当一部分发展能力。因此, 如果要禁止克隆人,其理由应比任何已经提出的更为充分迫切得多才成。


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